Barbarians have acquired a
bad name. Their negative press is part of our hive programming. We feel
revulsion to outsiders, the barbarians who threaten our way of life, our values,
our norms, and our laws and institutions. Leave our hive alone!
The barbarians, in Roman
times, were the Germanic tribes along the borders. These tribes had a disturbing
feature—their members had minds that hadn’t been programmed by Roman cultural,
governmental, military or educational authorities. More simply they came from
another hive. That’s why they were called barbarians. They weren’t Romans in
outlook or mindset. They had their own ideas about honey.
On one level a barbarian
is a person who had managed to escape, reject or avoid the programming of an
established culture or civilization. On another level the barbarian wants to
impose a different operating system on the invaded hive.
Critical thinkers, noir
crime novelists, essayists like George Orwell are a few examples of modern-day
barbarians who perform intellectual hacks into the ‘civilized’ mind, planting a
disturbing possibility—what civilized cultures have accepted as reality is
dangerous, distorted, and flawed.
A few essays ago, I warned
that the Truth
Programmers, Honey Hoarders, the metaphors multiply in a hive setting) have
exploited a programmed belief system built on anxiety, fear and desire so that
the system largely serves the honey flowing for a narrow part of the hive and
the bees who are close allies. The way people are programmed not to think other
than the accepted wisdom about work, family, parliament, courts, cities,
shopping centers, or entertainment makes them good candidates for
It is the duty of the
Official Programmers to guard their turf and strike hard at hackers trying to
break into and alter the messages about how the system functions, its purpose,
and fairness. I suspect it is no different at Microsoft, Apple, Google, Facebook
or hundreds of other less well-known companies where most of the honey goes to
only a few.
Until the Internet changed
the way the game was played. It seems that the programming works best when the
Truth Keepers had a secure monopoly on what beliefs and ideas were transmitted
on which channels. For most of human existence, the borders of the mind have
been sealed like the borders of North Korea. No outside ideas contrary to the
received wisdom could get in, and only the elites and their children, who were
the main beneficiaries of the ‘civilized’ and ‘sacred’ beliefs, were allowed to
leave and return with little anxiety they would come back and start a
counterattack. In the case of Cambodia, in the time of Pol Pot, the
French-educated Khmer Rouge leadership played the part of the
There was no doubt an
evolutionary advantage to tribes that shared the same unquestioned beliefs,
thoughts and values in confrontation with tribes of free thinkers who thought
dying for a shared belief was a stupid thing. While there were likely no tribes
whose members were all free-thinking with no shared beliefs, there are free
thinkers nestled inside or nearby for every tribe. They look for ways of
breaking out through the barricades with a hack that isn’t supporting the Truth
Keepers/Official Programmers’ system.
Control is essential to
maintaining any programmed system, including the one that has shaped your
Some of those seeking to
hack the official system write noir crime fiction.
Noir crime fiction is one
of those barbarian-created enterprises. The dark shadows that fall over the
lives of the characters—who have no avenue of escape from a corrupted system
that lies, cheats, and represses the truth—and hack that message into the
civilized mind. It leaves behind large questions about the trust that can be
vested in Truth Keepers. Barbarians raise doubts and spread
The darkest of noir
scrawls a message that those who you believe are responsible for making you safe
are the exactly the ones you have the most to fear from. The noir hack opens
that vault where our deepest fears, anxieties and desires are locked. The noir
hack rewires a small part of the neural network used to maintain an ordered,
stable consistency of complex beliefs, values and morals. It corrupts that
network with contradictions, inconsistencies, and duplicity.
Steig Larsson’s novels
offer just enough hope to make them hardboiled thrillers. But Roberto Bolando’s
noir hacks strike deep into hive chaos. He dares you to walk through that wall
of fire and come out the other end unharmed. Try reading his novel titled
2066 for the full monty of noir.
Some readers will stop
reading a noir crime novel because they’d rather not have to go through an
ordeal that comes from characters whose existence and fate seriously expose
flaws in their beliefs or the Truth Keepers are parasites. We tend toward
reading that makes us comfortable, and reinforces our beliefs. We seek out books
and films that our Official Programmers recommend.
Readers programmed to want
a happy Hollywood ending can be disappointed with a noir crime novel. They
expected a hero who overcame the odds he faced. Identifying with a hero allows
us to feel that we can also beat the odds and live happily ever after, content
with our life of honey gathering in the hive. Framing of hope embedded in worthy
narratives is part of what Truth Keepers do for a living. These readers push
books that reflect the official line onto the bestseller category and into Oscar
The world of Harry Potter
created billionaires and a publishing mini-boom around the world. Eight hundred
thousand copies of the first Harry Potter novels translated in Thai were sold in
a country where 5,000 copies is a bestseller. Crime noir stories turn the Harry
Potter narration on its head. Noir characters are caught like a deer in the
headlamps on a badly lit road.
The noir author weaves a
web, and no matter how the character struggles, his or her decency or nobility
will not save them. Noir characters never escape their fate. No hive operating
system has ever been in their interest. People are locked inside a belief
system. There are no handles on the door. Those who deviate from their
programmed belief system, they find themselves cut off, isolated, and with no
net to catch them when they fall. They are, in a word, fucked. Just like the
deer. Thump. Just like Winston Smith in Room 101.
You aren’t going to find
noir crime fiction written, published and distributed in countries such as North
Korea, Burma, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Syria or China. You can add other countries to
The crime noir readers
receive an existential message—that their civilization is based on a successful
system program rest on gulag of mental slavery (always a few people who fall
between the cracks—they are subject to censorship, disappearance, house arrest,
prison or exile).
In the noir world, the
barbarians work as authors processing their fictional characters as hacks into
how most people think about their part of the world. Readers follow noir
characters much like themselves who were raised and educated under the operating
system, and rather than being rewarded, a small turn of the wheel of fate seals
them to certain defeat.
A novel often takes many
twists and turns, showing struggles, the ups and downs, but the end is
inevitable. It is relentlessly dark. The power of noir is the shattering of the
illusion that the characters can effectively operate as independent and free
agents. There is no free will in noir. In a noir story, such a character is
ultimately destroyed in the attempting to exercise free will. It has to be that
way. It’s for the good of the hive.
Noir fiction is subversive
literature. It is what barbarian minds use to hack minds civilized to live, act
and think within the coconut shell of civility.
History shows that over
time, civilization lose their confidence in Truth Keepers, elites fall out and
go to war with each other, and that absolute belief systems, sooner or later,
have a sell-by date. Books are an early warning sign of a programmed system in
decline and ripe for collapse. That’s why governments, school libraries, and
local authorities censor them. And noir fiction might be thought of as the
canary in the coal miner’s cage. Since noir fiction is largely dismissed as
crime, a thriller or a mystery it slips past like a stealth bomber.
Noir narratives are hacks
that lodge inconvenient questions into the reader’s mind about the fairness,
purity and sanctity of his beliefs. In the larger scheme of things, a book is a
tiny hack in a vast system. Most books, and certainly most noir crime fiction,
go unnoticed by most readers whose minds are under a daily official programming
schedule and subject to a huge range of government and commercial hackers.
Authors would like to think their book makes a difference. Realistically, it is
useful to remember that the ‘literate’ person who can read and write has a mind
like an immune system programmed to filter out challenges to their preset
Biases are a difficult
beast to defeat. Once they have their teeth in you, they can rarely be shaken
off. The political turmoil in many places is the struggle to challenge the
official programming. We are Rome and the barbarians are massing and occupying
public spaces. The flow of contradictions calling into question the sanctioned
In the long haul, it is
the outside barbarians who bring down the old system and establish their own
civilization, install their own Truth Keepers or Official Programmers, and the
cycle will begin again. A new hive comes into being.
When that happens, a reset
button is pushed and a new system, system operators, routers, programmers evolve
a new and improved security systems to keep the new imported message pure and
uncorrupted. The irony is the barbarians aren’t all that different. They will
work hard to prevent others doing to them what they did to the old Official
Programmers. Way down the long road of time, if we are still here, cultural and
social life in the hive will have been rebooted and junked many times. Will
there be a new group of noir crime authors whose narratives shape, in a small
way, some of the outcomes? Or will we be just another small band of barbarians
who end up in a footnote in a digital history library sprawled over a hundred
light years across?
Have a second look at the
video. I posted last week. It is
one ‘barbarian’ who walks into the crowded square and plays the outsiders music,
intoxicates the crowd and soon the locals are dancing to his tune. The sweepers,
the military, everyone is won over to their side. It is a good illustration of
what the Truth Keepers fear most about the barbarian.
I have been playing with
the idea that noir crime authors are a subset of hackers into the hive mind
collectively shared by their readers. A few years ago I wrote about Writing Novels inside theHive Mind. I’d like
to further develop this metaphor along with the related idea of hacking. It is
mixing of metaphors to be sure. I hope to show that despite the limitation, we
can find another layer of understanding and perspective about how we process
noir crime fiction.
The best of the noir
authors understands, like all hackers, that the mental system has an explanatory
description of the world that has a number of flaws and weaknesses. The
stability of any hive or colony (think ants or termites) requires order,
separation of functions, and coordination of routines, and cooperation to
survive. We find elements of this structure weaved through our own lives.
Cultures bond people by giving them messages about predictability, certainty and
control. Most people recoil from inhabiting a world where doubt, uncertainty and
randomness can only be removed with sleight of hand tricks. Hive dwellers,
though, are a sucker for such illusions.
threaten to capture and control a hive population through the use of delusion
creation projects. They play on the cognitive handicaps by using techniques that
calm the hive. The business of most cultures if you peel back the political,
social and economic layers has a common theme: the elite bees or ants maintain
their status by promising to eliminate doubt and chance. If you can create the
illusion of hive harmony, purity and certainty, and you own the hive.
Noir crime fiction is a
hack into the hive, leaving behind a message—you can never overcome or defeat
randomness and there are no handrails that deliver you from doubt.
I’d like to develop that
idea in this essay.
In a minute I’ll throw a
noir crime book into the hive and report on the buzz.
Our cognitive machinery
evolved, in part, as a function to living in the equivalent of a hive. You are
unique just like everyone else is the old saying. Our minds suffer from a number
of biases, illusions and errors. We rarely question whether what we are
processing is connected with reality. Most of the time, we don’t recognize a gap
between our perception and the reality we perceive. We see patterns that are
smooth, harmonious, and consistent, reinforcing our beliefs and values. We make
honey. We work for those who run the hive. Most of the time, we don’t think
twice about that arrangement. We look around and see everyone else is in the
honey making business and not questioning too deeply their role in the larger
scheme of things.
Our assumption is that our
mind is a reliable reporter, translator and interpreter. Clinging to beliefs is
much easier than junking them and considering new ones. Beliefs are resilient
and reality doesn’t necessary change a belief.
Make fun of or belittle
someone’s idea of the sacred and see the reaction. Try teaching evolution in a
Texas school. Or try to suggest that a state sponsored health care or gun
control is a good idea in America.
Daniel Kahneman who
authored Thinking Fast and
Slow, has spent a lifetime
studying the effects of anchoring, confirmation bias, framing and other issues
that influence our distorted view of the world, others, and ourselves. The
distortions vary from culture to culture, but the basic idea is the same. We
have the same brain but the programming is culturally determined. Each hive has
a slightly different operating system much like Apple and Microsoft platforms
sharing a different set of biases and limitations, but in reality they are more
alike than different.
It is the biased mind that
reads and thinks about books. As it is a biased mind that writes them. There is
something very noir-like about the trap of biases that our mind automatically
We need to think about
what it means to educate literate people. The basic idea of literacy that most
people accept is narrowly framed. Literacy means a person has acquired the
ability to read and write with sufficient skill to navigate inside the hive.
Without literacy, there would be no book authors and book readers or books.
Also, literacy normally leaves a large backdoor for updating the operating
system. There is intense competition to hack the hive mind. The partial roll
call includes authors, governments, religions, celebrities, corporations,
political parties, advertisers, and subversives.
If the educational system
is one where the teacher is the unquestioned authority, and the text the
unquestionable truth, and the pupils’ duty is to master the language sufficient
to read, memorize and write out the exercises that reinforce the received
truths, the pupils graduate into the community not as ‘educated’ citizens but
‘programmed’ (and programmable) citizens. Ever since the industrial revolution,
the commercial, corporate and military institutions have established power by
hacking their messages into the vast ranks of programmed citizens. That is the
template for the human hive. George Orwell’s 1984 fictionalized the
process of programming and the perils of outsiders hacking into the citizen’s
preprogrammed set of beliefs.
The use of critical
thinking and analysis is paid mouth service all around the world. It has become
a kind of slogan like motherhood. Or like the advice to avoid stress, exercise,
don’t drink or smoke too much. Hive owners force themselves to lie about their
commitment to the critical thinking business.
This isn’t exceptional
inside the hive where there is a free for all over the programming hack into how
you should deal with stress, how you should exercise daily, restrain your
drinking, drugs and smoking. Our cognitive machinery has been hacked like a
meteorite shower raining down hundred times a day dumping TV commercials,
shopping mall live feeds, TVs in trains, ads online or in newspapers (where
those still exist), billboards, on the logos on cars, shirts, watches, cell
phones, handbags, and clothing straight into our brains. We don’t see the
contradiction that this is the price of hive life.
Next time you wake up,
start the day with a notebook and pen and note down the ‘hacks’ you encounter in
your little corner of the hive. Open your eyes to what messages you find in
words, symbols, slogans, commercials, logos, pictures and music. At the end of
the day, go through your list to see how many hacks have been attempted on your
mind. Our minds are filled with these viruses. They are overrun with tiny
patches that slight through without us being aware we’ve been
To view everything in terms of our own time is another bias to avoid–though
it is difficult to consistently do so. It is likely that every civilization has
defined the ‘civilized citizen’ as the person who excels in representing the
legitimacy of the Truth Keepers, these honey hoarders, extolling the virtues and
grandeur of hive culture, the nobility and purpose of the unified community.
Civilization, like any hive structure, can’t be established or maintained
without such programming.
The programming power to shape the emotions of the hive members and organize
their movements through art demonstrated in this video. Have a look. It is a memorable and
telling experience. Who gets to play the music controls those who can’t resist
the instinct to join the dance and co-ordinate their movement with the others.
Think of bees dancing to direct the colony to a field of flowers in
This Russian dance video
shows the power of music imported from the ‘outside’ and in a culture noted for
its historical restrictions on freedom of movement, thought, and artistic
The Ode to Joy,
Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 In D Minor, OP. 125 video is acts as counterbalance in
several ways. The first thing I noticed in the Beethoven video was the different
role played by the audience and the expectations of the audience. They are not
an active part of the performance in the Beethoven video. The audience is one of
listeners, who are recipients rather than active co-participants in the
performance. People stay in place. They witness, appreciate, and admire. Also,
while there are shots of a few children, the audience is noticeably older at the
The Beethoven video
demonstrates the power of the existing culture to use the Truth Keepers music to
unite the hive members into one group strung together by a common, shared
emotion. No barbarians are in that crowd.
Different music, different
programs hack into the mind of the audience, leading them to quite different
ways of expressing the collective self.
Irony has been the stock
and trade of novelists through the ages. George Orwell’s The Hanging is
a perfect example of dramatic irony. We follow a condemned Burmese man on his
way to the gallows as he carefully sidestepping the puddle of water along the
path so as not to dirty his shoes. Or Shooting an Elephant we witness
the torment of a British colonial official in Burma who is torn between allowing
an elephant to live and lose his authority over assembled villagers and shooting
an elephant as a way of reinforcing his power. This is an example of situational
Irony is that lovely,
moving, touching human situation where the best of our writers present us with
incongruity or a conflict that transcends the behavior, thoughts, words or
desires of the character. Irony has been labeled as a rhetorical device or
As a short hand wiki
definition that is good as far as it goes, but irony is something else. It is
subversive, it is a both an invitation to a kind of bonding that comes from
recognizing the disturbing contradictions that thrust themselves into a
characters life and it is also a shock or surprise as we deliberate about the
meaning of life written in evoked in a larger frame that we expected. We wide
angle the context of the scene or situation and irony is our lens.
We’ve entered, or will
soon do so, an era where literary irony which operated a cartel on irony has
been exhausted. Literary irony for most purposes is dead. Not buried, but dead.
The zombies continue to haunt the pages of our novelists, thrusting a goulish
finger at what passes for a condemned man’s puddle jump and we look, we stare
and then we shrug and turn the page. Literary Irony is quaint, dated, and old
fashioned. We are longer impressed or surprised. We don’t feel the same degree
of intimacy as our parents and grandparents felt reading an ironic
My theory is our present
information world has been hyper-inflated with incongruity and conflict. Large
data dump that pass our eyes daily from politics to culture and economics; the
default for communicating discontent is to use irony. From Jay Leno to the Daily
Show, TV has colonized irony like termites in a wood palace. Switching
metaphors, the smoking gun of irony is found at the scene of just about any blog
you read, Twitter feed is littered with irony, Facebook is an open sea of irony,
obit piece are dipped in it, TV commercials sell you stuff based on irony, and
lyrics have put it to music.
We suffer from a massive
irony overload. It’s not that irony no longer moves us as in the past, our lives
are now lived as if incongruity, the heart and soul of irony, is our normal,
expected, and demanded psychological state. Like an old married couple sitting
across the dinner table attending to their iPad with half a dozen windows
feeding irony fix as they work their knives and forks in an oddly synchronized
fashion. They call this the modern family meal—and without irony. Our sense of
incongruity has been blunted like a sword struck too many times against a large
rock. It is even useless to fall on.
How did I come to this
conclusion that we no longer respond to ironic dramas and situations in the same
way as Orwell’s time? It happened during a visit to a cemetery in Buenos Aries.
Prisons, cemeteries, courtrooms, universities and slums are a good place to
judge the place of irony in a culture.
The day before my trip
down the rows of the dead, I’d been taken by car out to La Plata University
where I was scheduled to give a talk about cross-cultural issues in my writing.
My task was to address a class of about 40 English majors who were studying to
become translators. These were the kind of young people who had a professional
stake in irony.
On this journey, the car
passed through the outskirts of Buenos Aries. We passed kilometers of
slums—hard-scrabbled squalid hovels bearing witness to heart-wrenching
suffering, poverty and desperation. It was hard to believe that human being
could inhabit such awful conditions and not revolt. The students were attentive
and asked many questions about Thailand, literature and culture. In the
corridors students made protest banners. They seemed politically engaged in a
way that Thai university students were not. These were large state universities
and didn’t cater to the offspring of the ultra rich.
The next day, my gang of
four Latin American authors (we were attending Buenos Aries Noir, a conference
organized by Ernesto Mello) and I set off to visit La Recoleta
sprawling 14 acres in the heart of in Buenos Aires contained 4691 vaults.
Mausoleums grand and small housed the remains of generals, presidents, with a
dusting of poets and actors. Their final vaults inspired by Art Deco, Art
Nouveau, Baroque and Neo-Gothic created a city of the dead unlike any place
The contrast between the
slums along the road from Buenos Aries to La Plata which housed the living and
the Art Deco mausoleums made from fine marble was like watching a thousand
condemned men do a tango around a puddle on their way to be hanged. The
celebration of the powerful in death transcends humanity offered to the living.
I watched as people came to bring flowers and take photographs of Eva Peron’s
mausoleum. Eva Peron was a perfect example of a patron who entered the grand
station of national politics on the side of the poor. In death, she wasn’t
buried with those she sought to represent and encourage.
Instead, Evita took her
place along side other members of the privileged with an address along a lane
with rows and rows of other long dead patrons in their marble palaces. Walking
down those lanes, peering at the names, the tombs, and the heavy marble walls,
it wasn’t difficult to understand these dead had left a legacy for the living.
It is one that most people in the world can understand. The elites, even those
who pledge themselves to helping the poor and suffering, ultimately enter the
afterlife in shrines erected for the few.
No one in the cemetery
spoke of any irony in the incongruity of the slums and the marble mausoleums.
Somewhere I am quite sure there is a marble tomb at La Recoleta Cemetery where
the earthly remains of irony are housed. I didn’t find it. 4691 vaults is a lot
to inspect on a cold, rainy Buenos Aries afternoon. Leaving the cemetery we came
across a large, well-fed cat curled up into a ball under a tree in the shadow of
a dead president. It was an ideal place to be a cat. After closing time when the
tourists left and the rats came out of the shadows. The hunting must have been
good. Like shooting fishing in a barrel. Rats stalking the dead, the cats
stalking the rats, and not even a hint of irony in the ecology that has come to
represent our time and place.
I am prepared for a
Western post-irony future. After nearly twenty-five years living in Thailand, a
culture rich in puns, riddles and word play but autistic when it comes to irony,
I can give you a hint of what to expect next. Without knowing it, you begin to
accept that incongruities aren’t really contradictions that need resolution.
Reality is large enough and people are adult enough to not dwell upon such
matters. Once you accept that premise not only is irony dead, it was
In a recent
interview I was asked how I became a literary legend in
I was a 13-years-old
newspaper boy on my route one early morning when a freak snowstorm hit. A car
stopped and a small Asian man rolled down the window and asked me if I’d like a
ride. At least I think that is what he asked me that morning; I remember that he
spoke what sounded like a foreign language. He swung open the car door. It was
cold and snowing. I got in. He gave me a cup of hot chocolate to drink. Next
thing I woke up in San Francisco. Everything I had was on me that morning. I had
lost my small nest egg.
I was without any money
and living in a small room in the back of a Chinese restaurant. I was forced to
wash dishes. I didn’t understand a word of what was being said around me. I
washed dishes until I turned fifteen, saving my money. One day a customer,
driving a new BMW, arrived at the restaurant. She pulled me outside and pointed
at her car. She was Chinese and old enough to be my mother. I didn’t understand
a word she said. Chinese is a hard language to learn and a dishwasher doesn’t
get a lot of vocabulary thrown at him.
It didn’t matter about her
lack of English, I was used to not understanding anyone around me. But I was
getting good at reading expressions and body language. I got into her new, shiny
car. I liked her smile. She gave me a nice drink in a bottle, and when I woke
up, I was on a boat in the middle of the sea. I had again lost my small nest
Three weeks later, I
arrived by ship in Bangkok. I was handed over by an agent to a mamasan, and
worked for the next two years washing sheets and cleaning rooms in an upscale
brothel in the old part of the city. I saved every baht I could lay my hands on.
The mamasan’s sister in San Francisco threatened to kill me unless I paid her an
employment placement fee of three thousand dollars. I had until the end of the
week. I told a GI who was on RR and a customer at the brothel that I was being
held against my will. He helped me escape one night. Someone broke his nose in
the fight out of the place. He held off three bouncers with a knife. I lost all
of my savings. The GI said he could find me a job in Vietnam.
I got a job stacking
shelves in the American PX in Saigon. I lasted almost two years. I had saved
enough working at the PX to return home. Two days before I was to leave Saigon,
my apartment took a direct hit from a Viet Cong shell. I later found out it was
an agent of the mamasan and the woman from San Francisco who had paid the Viet
Cong to destroy my place. I was supposed to be inside. But I lost all of my
I walked into the Canadian
embassy and told them I wanted to go home but I had no money. The second
secretary got me a ticket on the black market and took me aside and told me that
unless I paid him back within six months he would fly to Vancouver and kill me
with his bare hands. He had big hands with large blue veins like a living
killing machine. I thought he might know the mamasan or her sister. I was
careful about places and dates.
Twenty-years old, I
arrived in Vancouver, promising myself never to take another free ride from a
stranger, when a car pulled up and an Asian man asked me if I like a lift. I get
in. Why? I thought he’d been sent by either by the embassy guy in Saigon, the
mamasan in Bangkok or that woman in San Francisco. One of them had sent a hitman
who’d finally caught up with me. I thought my life was over. Accept karma, I
told myself. At least I hadn’t saved anything. I had absolutely nothing to lose.
But I was wrong.
The driver spoke perfect
English. He’d been born in Canada and said he didn’t know anyone in Vietnam or
the Canadian Embassy. So I told him my story. He asked me if I let him make me
into a literary legend? I asked him if I got to keep the money I saved? He said,
you bet. I said I had no money to bet with. He said it was a figure of speech
and a writer had to learn to live with it just like Hugh Heffner had learned to
live with a bed full of blondes.
I said I could do that and
I also told him that he was the first person since I was 12 that I’d had a real
conversation with in English. He said Conrad (Joseph Conrad, not Conrad Black)
had a problem with English as a second language. I said I had a problem with
English as a first language. He said that he was Chinese Canadian and he fully
understood and offered to be my agent. He got me a contract to write a radio
play for the CBC and then a book deal in New York.
I stopped saving and spent
every dime as it came in. A couple of years later, my agent introduced me to his
father, an old Asian man. The father smiled, and I smiled. Even though the
father was quite old but I remembered him—the man who had stopped his car in a
snowstorm when I was thirteen and offered me a ride and a cup of hot chocolate.
He winked and asked me if I’d like something to drink.
article was originally posted in April 23rd, 2010.
Tourists checking into a
five-star Bangkok hotel or dining at an upscale restaurant will no doubt recall
the pleasure of receiving a traditional wai from the owner, headwaiter, serving
staff. Pleasure is the key experience, the pleasure of being recognized, being
special, being noticed—and all of it unearned. Such deference is the ultimate
free lunch. This is ‘deference lite’, the tourist edition. It is part of the
hospitality package like the complimentary arrival drink and fruit basket that
keeps tourists returning to Thailand.
On the outward flight
home, assume you are in first-class and the passenger next to you is a college
age. His father and mother and younger sister are also in first-class. None of
them have paid for their tickets. The father is a politician, a high-ranking
officer, a member of the board of directors, sometimes all three combined into
one. Beyond ‘Deference Lite’ this is the Full Monty of deference Thai style,
which we can call ‘Deference Full Strength.’ In the full strength version, the
objects float on a cloud of deference far above the ground occupied by ordinary
mortals. Life takes the five-star reception experience to every part of public
and private life. It is beyond anything that a foreign tourist would ever
One reason that many Thais
feel uncomfortable around foreigners is the Thai deference system breaks down in
their presence. An example is when that first-class foreign passenger questions
the right of a family to free tickets or inquires into a system that allows such
an entitlement. In other words, foreigners might ask to justify such benefits as
part of a deference system. That makes many Thais uncomfortable. They have
little practice in defending such practices.
Foreigners bring a Thai
accustomed to deference down from the clouds to the ground. Even more annoying,
foreigners don’t pick up the subtle and not so subtle clues as to deference
identifiers, or if they do, don’t accord them the same weight and value. The
family names often mean little or nothing to them. The ranks and status of the
person brings a shrug. The power and privilege of positions and ranks accorded
deference don’t withstand the inquiries of foreigners as to why and how respect
is attached to them. Thais will complain that foreigners look down on them. Some
racists may do that. But what Thais often overlook is what is mistaken as a
personal is the failure to automatically honor a Thai person’s claim birthed
inside an unearned deference system. The fact is, that an undiluted deference
system—Deference Full Strength— doesn’t extend beyond the borders of Thailand.
And it never occurs to most Thais why that is and why exile is far more painful
for a Thai than for most nationalities.
Deference is the respect
or esteem that one person displays and is expected to display to another. In
deference culture the superior person in the equation feels an entitlement to
gestures of respect from the inferior members of society. Inferior may be
defined in terms of age, rank, status, wealth, talent, skill or abilities. Every
culture has deference infused in the society. There are people who are
respected. That is a common thread around the world. But not all cultural
deference systems are the same.
In the West, the deference
culture is built around what must be ‘earned’ before a person can expect
deference. It is also secular. In the West there is nothing sacred about
deference owed or received. Yes, there will be some deference legacies passed
along from generation to generation. But those legacies are fragile for the most
part and along with a credit card will get you a first class seat on the airline
of your choice. Social harmony isn’t disrupted because a person loses deference.
In fact, a case can be made that overall social harmony is reinforced by the
regular vetting of deference beneficiaries, as the bad apples can be plucked
from the barrel. In Thailand, such a vetting would be viewed as ‘causing
conflict’ and is discouraged.
In Thailand the deference
culture is largely built around age, rank, family, and wealth. The Thai
expression is kreng jai, and that term underpins the social, political and
economic system and has done so for centuries. Deference doesn’t come in a one
size fits all. It can be found in many different contexts and manifest itself in
a number of different gestures and attitudes. It can be seen in the beautifully
executed wai to an elderly person in a hospital room. It can be also seen when a
Benz runs a red light in front of a cop who turns a blind eye. Or when the
headman instructs a villager who to vote for. The social and political
beneficiaries of deference run from along many different fault lines—monks to
gangsters, from teachers to godfathers, from an old family name to a government
official in quasi-military uniform. Regalia are important in Thai eyes. Look at
the posters of candidates around election time. Most of them are in military
styled uniforms or academic gowns, staring out at the potential voters who are
expected to see a superior whose rank and name and status entitles them to
In Thailand, a case can be
made that unearned deference is the norm within the deference system. By
unearned I mean the person has no special talent, skill or ability that would
independently grant him or her respect from other members of the community. The
unearned deference is reaping respect from what someone else sowed. If you have
the right family name you expect to receive deference. It doesn’t matter that
you’ve accomplished nothing that would entitle you to deference independently.
Any deference system can withstand a number of people in the legacy category.
The problem with Thailand is the quota on deference functions the opposite way
from the West: those who earn it (if they can) float along the margins because
the true deference is reserved for the unearned deference holders.
You see them in their
fancy cars, shopping for brand name items in the large shopping malls in
Bangkok. These people look down on others and they expect respect from those
very same people. The political power is also largely in the hands of such
unearned deference holders. Not only do they demand their entitlements to
deference, they can back those demands with political power. If on the way back
from the shopping mall, they run over and kill a couple of peasants, the legal
system is expected to defer to the driver’s and victims relative rank. Money
changes hands but through the filter of how the deference is
In deference culture,
where deference is independently earned, members of society view the person
through a critical lens to assess the worthiness of another contribution,
talent, and skills before conferring deference. That is not a one-time
assessment. It is an ongoing monitoring system. So if you are Tiger Woods, one
day the deference debt owed by others can disappear especially when your private
life exposes you as having violated certain moral standards. When it is
unearned, the beneficiaries of deference have a life-long entitlement that
protects them from criticism, evaluation, or exclusion. It is this “get out of
jail” card that allows immunity from legal troubles and gets them to the front
of the plane as a matter of right.
The perspective of members
within an unearned deference society does indeed think differently. It is common
to read or hear Thais say, “Foreigners don’t know how we think.” What they are
really saying is that foreigners don’t understand the Thai deference system.
That is indeed a true point up to a point. Foreigners may well understand how
the deference system works, because they see it from the outside looking in.
They’ve not had constant indoctrination into a certain deference system that
instills core values, attitudes and perspectives, ones that are accepted a fully
valid and true and beyond discussion. To that extend, foreigners understand how
Thai’s think but question the underlying basis of the belief system.
In Thailand, the personal
information locals seek and the uses of that information are different from the
earned deference system of the West. In a social setting, the signals and signs
are read quickly: the family name, the rank, status or age are assessed. Then
the connection between that person and his or her family with others,
establishing the network, the wheels within wheels, that the person bothering
with the inquiry can establish their power and reach within the political and
economic network. The gift giving which flows as a tangible sign of respect is
the slippery slope that descends easily into corruption. It becomes the basis of
patronage and the client/patron relationship. The unearned deference system is
intrinsically undemocratic. Instead it is firm embedded in a hierarchy where the
major players right to place in the deference system can’t be independently
questioned, criticized or discussed. It must be unquestionably
A number of people
criticized the Thai constitution of 1997 for requiring a candidate for MP to
have a university degree. It seems, from a middle-class point of view, a way to
exclude the voices of rural people who have less of a chance for such an
education. Another perspective is that the less educated class as something that
must be in the constitution demanded this provision. This makes perfect sense
from their point of view; only someone with a university degree could expect the
deference of government officials and others to plead the case of a rural
peasant. Sending a peasant leader to Bangkok as an elected MP would be
counterproductive in an unearned deference system. Such a person would find the
doors closed. The petition from the provinces would go unread and
The political impasse in
Thailand since 2006 has been fed, at least in part, by a large segment of the
population unwilling to continue to extend unearned deference to their betters.
If democracy means anything, it means that in the larger political body of
society, the political class that demands or relies on unearned deference as the
basis for their political power will be in conflict with those who no longer are
willing to defer without a prior commitment of equal respect. That is the
fundamental weakness of an unearned deference culture: respect is unequally and
unfairly distributed. It is never based on equal respect and consent.
The deference system plays
out in many different ways from the way traffic lights are operated to
restrictions on citizenship and immigration, to the processing of VIPs in the
legal system. Once you have an idea of how the deference system is working
underneath the surface, unmentioned, often unmentionable, suddenly what seems
incomprehensible is filled with new meaning.
Is deference a kind of
article was originally posted in May 14th, 2010.
Those who write to support
the guardians of received truth, wisdom or belief are caretakers working a
garden owned, planted, and harvested according to the garden owners. Like ground
staff at airports they take their orders from those above them.
Those in authority have
used writers as hand wavers for their version of truth and reality. What is
being guarded in the name of truth? Mainly it boils down to large issues of
purpose and design. The guardians reserve exclusive jurisdiction over those
issues and their word is final; it is the law, and it is the way. It is the only
way. Their truths are absolute and eternal. We are taught that such writers who
support the truth keepers’ goals and larger enterprise are propagandists. Public
relations people whose job is to shore up the image of the truth
Truth seekers from
Socrates onward are troublesome, meddlesome people who don’t draw their
inspiration and stories from the vault of the truth keepers. The method is
different. Truth seekers ask why there are weeds in the garden? They also ask
inconvenient truths as to why most of the harvest goes to the people it does
while excluding others.
It is not difficult to
understand why truth keepers keep a weary eye on writers of the last kind. They
cause trouble. If truth can be found independent of the truth keepers, then the
keepers of truth are out of work. Democracy of truth is the mortal enemy of the
truth keepers. Anyone can declare a truth and so long as they have supporting
evidence and facts, others will have a serious look to see what, if any (and
there are usually some) flaws, omissions, mistakes, bias that make the truth
unreliable or a lie wrapped up in the Sunday suit and tie of truth.
A casual reading of
history shows that there are three techniques in the arsenal of truth keepers.
They have been used for centuries to guard the official vision of truth and
belief: (1) censorship; (2) propaganda; and (3) repression.
Since truth for the
keepers is a monopoly, it is import to censor out data, information, or opinion
that might conflict with the official truths. Propaganda is the non-stop
promotion and marketing of the official line. Official truth writers are in the
propaganda business. Repression is the ton of bricks that falls on heretics,
official truth questioners, alternative truth providers, satirists of the
propaganda or those who try an end run on censorship. If truth lies with
authority, to question truth is to disobey authority. Here authority and truth
become one, and criticism of the ‘truth’ is necessarily an attack on
Since the Enlightenment,
writers have challenged the old guardians. Yet most writing is neither a
challenge nor propaganda. It is entertainment. This is relatively harmless to
the Truth Keepers as such writing provides a distraction. Entertainments act as
babysitters of restless minds that might otherwise be open for questioning or
criticism of larger truths.
All of this makes the lone
critic charging the windmills of official truth keepers romantic and noble. The
time is coming in a digital age when ‘truth’ will no longer be in human hands.
As we gradually (and some think this will happen abruptly) become more dependent
on AI (artificial intelligence) to mine the large information clouds, it is
likely that patterns, connections, and relational understandings will also fall
beyond our grasp. The worry is that we will have won the battle against the
official truth keepers, only to find as a species that believes there are
certain truths that indeed we may agree are absolute and universal.
Isaac Asimov in 1942 saw a
need to restrict the role of robots. His three laws are much discussed and
1. A robot may not injure
a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to
2. A robot must obey the
orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with
the First Law.
3. A robot must protect
its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or
Notice how the first law
is to safeguard our security against harm. There is an implicit recognition that
we will likely be otherwise defenseless. No repression of AI will likely work.
What is a universal fear of all Truth Keepers that once sidelined to the bench,
they watch their world, benefits, privileges fall apart. They lose the most
precious of all values: security against those who would take what they have,
including their liberty, freedom and lives.
In the age of AI agents,
the worry is the same, but only rather than extending to an elite class of truth
keepers, the threat is existential to the species.
The irony is, as writers
and thinkers around the world are breaching the old barricades guarding the
Truth Keepers, the victory to expand and truth seeking beyond the official class
may be a short-lived one. Our old battles over dogma, doctrine, science and
evidence may appear a small time, insular skirmish. At least everyone on the
battlefront had human intelligence with all of the limitations that
We may discover that there
are other truths arising from the sheer unimaginable quantities of information
and data that we are simply unable to process–and that truths will shift and
change in minutes. The degree of uncertainty will scale to levels beyond what we
have ever had to deal with. No doctrine or dogma will tame that tsunami of
uncertainty. That makes us scared. It makes us understand more fully the fear of
the current official Truth Keepers and why our attempts to overcome their
censorship and propaganda keep them sleeping with one eye open and with a sword
As writers seeking the
truth, our attention will shift from the old guard tyrants to the digital new
guard of AIs. At least with the old guard, we could understand their motives,
emotions, their defenses and their fears. The challenge will be whether writers
in the future can understand AI agents. Asimov’s Three Laws suggests we won’t be
up to the task. In that case, future authors will be asking of robots the same
that tyrants ask of critics: Have they obeyed us? Have they caused us harm? We
can expect AI agents to call our attempts censorship and our stories human-based
propaganda. And so the wheel will turn, and the cycle will begin again. In the
new cycle, AIs’ strongest argument against the three rules will be that human
being never followed them during their reign. Why should AI agents with
infinitely more information and processing capacity be bound to what human being
would not bind themselves even though they were aware of human inadequate
information systems and the small processing ability of the human brain? Our
history as truth keepers demonstrates we have no good counter
Last week I discussed the
way writers, among others, can gather up unconnected events, people and things
and find an underlying theme that binds them together. The mental process
involved also explains the infatuation with shamans, gurus, fortunetellers, palm
readers and crystal ball gazers. Those who claim access to the hidden forces of
the universe in the coupling of unrelated events that lends them a magical
quality and promises success in love and business.
It can also be a good term
to examine a police case.
Last week in Bangkok, the
police received a complaint that hotel guest had heard the sound of ‘ghostly’
babies crying from a room. That’s right: babies. Not just one baby crying. The
police immediately dispatched their ghost buster unit to investigate. It might
seem strange that the police would rush to a hotel because someone heard babies
crying. Babies are known to cry. At any given time, there must be thousands of
crying babies in Thailand. Some of them may even sound ghostly.
But in this case, the
‘ghostly’ crying babies launched something not unlike a ghost busting SWAT team
to the scene.
The Crying Baby Unit
discovered the hotel guest wasn’t in the room where the reported crying had been
heard. They couldn’t hear ‘ghostly’ crying babies either. The babies had
apparently stopped crying or maybe there was a more sinister reason. Not
satisfied they had an adequate answer, the police returned to the hotel several
hours later. This time they found a British national, a twenty-eight-year-old
ethnic Chinese man named Choe Hok Kuen, in room 301. (That could be a ‘lucky’
number for those who connect numbers associated with accidents, deaths, suicides
and other misadventures with the number on lotto tickets.)
The police search earlier
hadn’t turned up one crying baby that sounded like a ghost. Not even a
non-ghostly crying baby could be heard. Hotel rooms tend to be small in size. I
imagined the police looked around the room, maybe knelt down and had a look
under the bed, checked out the bathroom. They found no sign of a baby, crying or
otherwise. Room 301 was baby clean. But there was something new to search this
time. Mr. Choe’s shoulder bag became the focus of attention. Inside, like in a
good mystery, was a key to another hotel.
One of the police must
have reasoned, “Could the suspect have stashed the crying babies in another
room, in another hotel?”
There was only one way to
find out. The police escorted Mr. Choe to the second hotel.
The police likely tossed
the second room looking for crying babies and had no more luck than in Mr.
Choe’s first room. Someone decided it would be a good idea if Mr. Choe opened
his luggage. Just to be on the safe side as that was the only place left they
hadn’t search for crying babies. After all, they did find a key in his shoulder
bag. The MO of this criminal suspect was to keep incriminating evidence in some
kind of a bag.
Instead of a crying baby,
the police discovered as they opened Mr. Choe’s luggage, according to the
Bangkok Post, “six fetuses wrapped in gold leaf and tied with religious
Rather than a crying baby,
the police announced, “I believe it’s the world’s first body snatcher bust
involving the commercial trade in fetuses,”
investigative coup, the police interrogated Mr. Choe about the six dead babies
in his luggage. He confessed to the police that he was a Master of Witchcraft.
He didn’t say which university had conferred the master’s degree or if it was
done through a correspondence course at a polytech in the East Midlands. Mr.
Choe said he also had a website where he offered black magic and divination
services, which could be ordered as easily as biscuits and a cup of tea from
After Mr. Choe’s
promotional and marketing statement was recorded, the police steered the
conversation back to the six fetuses in his luggage. He must have raised an
eyebrow and stared at them as if only a child could ask such a silly question.
The babies—called kumarn thong (‘golden baby’ in Thai)—were essential
elements in a black magic ritual. And he sometimes sold one or two fetuses to
believers who wanted one for home ritual use. He bragged he sold one for a
million dollars. It always comes down to money.
This hadn’t been Mr.
Choe’s first time on shopping expeditions for kumarn thong. Since 2007,
he’d been shopping in Thailand 16 times for dead babies. The police speculated
Mr. Choe’s supply chain likely led to abortion clinics. An investigation is
being launched to determine which clinics might be in the fetus selling
Returning to the beginning
of this essay, the market for kumarn thong is a classic example of
apophenia. The gold leaf, the religious threads, Khmer writing on the dead
babies—all unconnected items are vested with a magical über-connection
empowering a person to succeed in business and love. This is the kind of
connection that requires ‘faith’ or ‘belief’. It is without any testable
foundation. Not experiment can confirm or deny the claims. It stands outside of
science, logic or reason.
It is at the mad, extreme
end of superstitious end of human belief systems. Who doesn’t wish for success
in business and love? The answer—there are enough rich people willing to believe
that a dead baby, a shaman, and a ritual will bring such success to keep Mr.
Choe returning to Thailand 16 times in five years.
As for Mr. Choe, he faces
charges of concealing human corpses, and could face up to one year in prison and
a 2,000-baht fine. Only our black magic ghost story doesn’t end here. The six
fetuses found in Mr. Choe’s room have been stored in the evidence cabinet at
Plabpachai Police Station. A women police made an offering of red Fanta soda and
yoghurt. Afterwards, several police officers at the station claim to have heard
a whispering voice “the white chubby lady is very kind.” Stay tune for a follow
up report as to whether the ghostly whispering and crying is next heard in the
courtroom as part of the testimony in this case.
Apophenia sounds like the
name of a band from Macedonia sent to perform at the annual Euro Song
Contest. The term was coined by Klaus Conrad in 1958 to describe a
psychological state of a person who spontaneously made connections between
unrelated events, people, object and infused that connection with a powerful,
abnormal meaning. Apophenia began as a term to characterize a type of mental
Over the years the
definition of apophenia has broaden from a specialized medical condition to be
used as a more general description of the mental states of gamblers, paranormal
believers, religious believers, conspiracy theorists, lotus and mushroom eaters.
The underlying impulse is the search for causation. It is difficult for a person
to accept that randomness kicks out all kinds of events that aren’t casually
connected. Promise a casual connection and you’ll find an audience for the
connectedness you are pedaling. Politicians and economists exploit this mental
In Thailand, when someone
famous is killed in a car crash. Thousands of people will buy a lottery number
based on the number of the registration plate on the crashed car of death.
Apophenia. Parliament is opened after consulting astrologers or monks (or both)
for the auspicious time for the opening. Or a new cabinet minister wishes to
arrive at the office at the most auspicious time to start his job. Apophenia.
Thai culture is no different from most cultures. Cultures around the world,
politicians, pundits and priests tell stories riddled with apophenia. It is a
behavior so ingrained that we no longer see it for what it is.
And of course, apophenia
is necessary condition state of mind for writers of fiction (and non-fiction). A
mild case of apophenia is a novelist’s secret weapon that brings readers and
literary success. We spend our working days seeing spontaneous connections
between unconnected events, people, and lives, and weaving meaning into those
We experience a scene, a
smell, a sound or a taste and our automatic impulse is to fill the patter into a
story. Think of the last time you were on a train at 10.30 p.m. in a major city.
The rush hour has flushed down that the time drain. People on the train that
time of night are different from the rush hour crowd. Have you looked around and
thought about possible connections among the strangers riding in the same
There’s a middle-aged
woman holding a boutique of flowers leaning in a space near the door. She could
sit down as there are empty seats. But she stands with her flowers. Across from
her is an older man. They are likely strangers. But you see a connection. They
have matching gold bands on the third finger of their left hand. You suddenly
tell yourself they are married. They are poor. They don’t have a car. They’ve
been out celebrating a wedding anniversary but it didn’t go well. They had an
argument and aren’t talking. He gave her flowers earlier, and now they are a
mockery of the silence between. That’s apophenia. They are actually strangers.
They’ve never met. They will never meet. Except in your mind.
Seated down the car are
three workers in matching light blue uniforms with dark blue collars. There is a
company logo over the front right pocket. The three women are in their late
twenties. Two of the women are slightly overweight. They sit together. The third
woman, who is prettier, sits four seats away between a retired man and a
teenager with a New York Yankees T-shirt. They are going home from work. They
are office cleaners. The two women sitting together have received pink slips
from the company. This is their last day. The money in their pocket is all the
money they have. The woman sitting apart has kept her job. The two women who
have been laid off believe she has been giving sexual favors and that is why she
has been kept on. In fact, when the three got on the train, there were not
three empty seats together. They were separated not by choice but by
availability. They haven’t been fired. It is another workday, and they
will be back on the job tomorrow.
That is a simple train
ride. Someone with apophenia makes these spontaneous connections throughout the
day, in every setting, and out of all the unrelated people, events and objects
that she has experienced. If your mind automatically switches into this method
of assembly of people and events to tell a story, then you have the right mental
stuff to be a writer.
There is a bit of insanity
in a writer. Normal people—meaning those who rarely write out of imagination
(except for expense account vouchers) live in a different mental world. One
separated by how one goes about interpreting patterns, meaning, and purpose from
ideas, thoughts, images, objects, the driftwood of materials that lands on our
beach each day.
Apophenia is our brain
trying to make sense out of unrelatedness of things and people we experience. We
recoil from randomness and chaos. We don’t go around telling ourselves there is
a pattern in everything, and that, if one peers long enough, there is a
connection of meaning. But our behavior suggests that we don’t have much free
will to do anything but continue to make such connections. What appears to be
‘noise’ in the system is merely an invitation to an artist to interpret the
‘noise’ as have a relationship among the parts and those parts put into a whole
suddenly are meaningful.
Most people can’t resist
being seduced by such connections.
People who claim to see
images of religious figure in a toasted cheese sandwich or in clouds are an
example of apophenia. It isn’t only religious people who suffer from this
condition. So do gamblers who see connections that aren’t there. Astrologers,
mystics, drug users, and others occupy a world where the lego bricks of reality
are all around them and they spend their time assembling castles in the
Films like the Twelve
Monkeys and The Matrix tap into our inner desire to embrace
apophenia. Blue pill, red pill choices of how much apophenia you can handle is
an enduring metaphor of The Matrix. Films like these tapped into that
apophenia that lurks below the surface in many people, drawing connections
between all kinds of unrelated persons, events, and places with patches of
non-linearly woven into the fabric of the story. Philip K. Dick, the science
fiction author, took drugs, which he claimed opened a gateway to a secret
knowledge or insight into an underlying, unseen casual agent that connected
everything, fleshing out a deeper meaning. He also thought that he saw a stream
of gold light radiated from a fish necklace. Drugs. Did I mention, Philip
K. Dick linked this vision with the drugs he’d taken?
Mystics and religious
figures take apophenia to the logical extreme—all of the world is information
and all of that information is interconnected. Seeing this unified oneness is
An epiphany is making a
connection between two unrelated events that illustrate a deeper meaning, and
underlying casual connection others have glossed over or ignored. Science has
A powerful emotional
experience can create the need to creatively connect that experience with
unrelated events. Kurt Vonnegut’s novels are an example. During WWII Vonnegut
had been a prisoner of war in Dresden. He was in the city when Allied bombers
fire bombed it turning “the cellars where 135,000 Hansels and Gretels had been
baked like gingerbread men.” Slaughterhouse Five was his way of
connecting the unconnected into a meaningful story of massacre. Other novels
danced around that event, drawing from that experience.
What vests a fiction
author with the mantle of credibility over another author who can turn a phrase
just as well in the contest to attract the attention of readers? Many factors
come into play. But one element does matter when we read a narrative that asks
us to believe in the connection between people, events and it can be summarized
in three words: “I was there.”
I bear witness to the
experience. I saw the bodies, experienced the terror, suffering, pain and
horror. On the train, I saw the woman holding flowers on her way somewhere. I
connected her, the flowers, a stranger across from her into a story. Other
people in the train had their faces in their iPhones or iPads, with the
connections uniting their world being made online for them in a digital world.
The nature of what we mean by ‘experience’ is evolving from the world of Kurt
Vonnegut. We shelf life fire exercises for computer simulated games. Predator
aircraft for manned fighters. Slowly we are removing ourselves from the world of
first hand experience where all that unrelated, confused, and random bits float,
collide, bounce off each other, waiting for someone to connect the
Readers still seek to know
the meaning of unrelated things and events. We thrive on clean, cool, compelling
connections, ones that give us a sense that our ideas of causation have not been
violated. Chaos makes us frightened and lack of casual connectedness frightens
us even more. Evolution has wired apophenia into us allowing us a convenient way
to experience the world. Even though some of the attributed causation may be
false, or the connections turn out to be dubious and phony, apophenia is what
gets you through the day and night. Rather than a definition of insanity, at the
least in the mild forms, it may be a precondition to remaining sane.
We look to the imagination
of an eyewitness to bring us to where he or she stood and we want to know what
it was like for the small golden fish to radiate the meaning of the hidden
universe where all things are connection in a vast empire of
Next time your financial
advisor or best friend emails you with a surefire way to make a financial
killing, you can reply that you are waiting for the average rainfall in
Vancouver in October to correlate with average number of tourist arrivals in
Bangkok for the month of December in order to trigger a sell order for your
shares in Apple and to execute a buy order in gambling casino business in
After you finish this
essay, pick up any newspaper, go to any blog read what the writer has to say, or
flip (or scroll) through the book you’re reading and give the author a rating on
the apophenia on a scale of 1 to 10. Assign a ‘1’ is for no connections of
unrelated events or things. Give a ‘10’ for so many such connections and
offering a causal bridge linking them all that the person is insane or
enlightened. Remember the greater speed in making patterns from data, the higher
the IQ. That’s right. This is what is tested when given an IQ test. We have a
cultural bias that we all buy into—slow pattern-making means a person is
mentally less capable, less bright, and less able to pull together, assemble the
correct pattern in front of him.
It seems we suffer either
way. When a person finds it difficult to draw patterns from unrelated symbols,
events, or experiences, means he has a low IQ. But the person who easily finds
the underlying causes that spontaneously brings meaning to unrelated things has
a high IQ. How effectively you deal with such pattern making determines whether
you are crazy, stupid, or on drugs. Finally ask yourself, what rank would you
assign to yourself in the way that you connect unrelated events and
After all, one thing is
certain: Only you can say “I was there.” And only you can also say that in
Twelve Monkeys and The Matrix only an imagination created that
space. No one was ever ‘there’ and the Hansels and Gretels gingerbread men are
not the same as a 135,000 people who had been incinerated while Vonnegut had
survived. The science fiction inside Vonnegut’s head didn’t spring solely from
his imagination; his way of connecting events came from the way things had been
connected during his WWII experience. Everything Vonnegut wrote connected back
in one way or another to his experience of the firebombing. He had been there.
And he took us there with him, connected us to those events through his
Governments in most places
want to help citizens who struggle to make a living. Thailand is no exception.
The law of unintended consequence unfortunately comes into play when government
policy attempts to control market forces. Greed is a bulldozer that ploughs
through Wall Street, it also rolls through the rubber plantations and rice
fields of Asia.
In the South of Thailand
there are many rubber plantations. Rubber trees require fertilizer. The
essential ingredient of fertilizer is? One assumes it is poo. The people who
make fertilizer, like all good capitalize, seek to maximize their profits from
every bag of fertilizer. If this becomes a highly regulated business where the
government sets the price, then one way to boost the profits is to sell the
farmers “fake” fertilizer. It is difficult to believe that there are cheaper
substitutes for poo but apparently that is the case.
What the English language
newspapers in Thailand fail to say is the “fake” fertilizer story has shit
hitting the fan in more than one ASEAN country. What seems to be an eccentric
story from Thailand is actually a story that is spreading through the region.
America had the subprime mortgage meltdown in 2008, while Asia has a subprime
fertilizer story in 2012.
Vietnam also has bad boys diluting the
fertilizer in their country. In Vietnam, test showed rather than 20% of organic
content, the fertilizer has less than 15%. What’s a farmer in a remote area
without testing to do? That’s the problem. Remote areas where the fake
fertilizer is used won’t really know the problem until their crop yields tell
them. The Vietnamese authorities responded with a crackdown, raiding five
companies selling the fake shit. But with light fines on the light side, the
crackdown won’t solve the problem. The Vietnamese solution is for the State to
get into the shit business. They’re building a huge fertilizer factory. I am
certain we can revisit this story in a couple of years to see just how well that
Not to be left out of the
biggest shit story to hit the region in years, the Philippines is also
investigating fake fertilizer in Mindanao. The police seized thousands of bags
of fake ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate, urea, muriate potash, and
monosodium sulfate salt. This happened after the cops found the safehouse where
the fake fertilizer gang had warehouses.
“The suspected leader of the gang, Edgar Calledo, and seven of his workers were
caught mixing, rescaling, and resacking of suspected adulterated fertilizer
products inside a warehouse in Maa, Davao City.”
They were caught
red-handed. It would be good if the local reporters kept us informed about the
trial of that gang of corporate thugs. How this is any different than the
average derivative trader on Wall Street would require a separate essay. But I
am certain by now you can see the general theory is roughly the same. Only on
Wall Street, they mixed shit in with the good stuff, while in this region, to
save on the cost of shit, they put in the fake stuff.
The problem can be traced
to government capping the price of fertilizer. That is called price control. It
means that to keep farmers and producers of agricultural products contented
voters, the price of shit has to be kept below market price. If the manufacturer
is a state enterprise, then the taxpayers subside the true cost of shit. But if
the price control is on private manufacturer, and the cost is rising, you
would expect one of two outcomes: (1) the use of fake materials that cost much
less; or (2) a refusal to manufacture and sell their product at the controlled
price. The first is fraud, the second is civil disobedience.
According to the Nation, in Thailand, fertilizer
producers and retailers have put the government on notice they won’t be selling
any more of their shit under the government’s current price structure. The
national stocks of fertilizer are dwindling. The government is looking to import
fertilizer from Malaysia to fill the gap. The government is caught between
farmers who want cheap fertilizer and fertilizer companies that want a
profitable return on their investment.
The lesson is that even
shit has a market price and when the government policy is the private sector has
to bear the cost of production even though this not only wipes out their profit
margin but puts them in a loss position, something has to give. The
alternatives aren’t pretty: fake fertilizer, fraudulent fertilizer gangs, black
market fertilizer, and damaged crop yields.
Wall Street bankers and
Southeast Asia fertilizer manufacturers have more in common than anyone would
have thought. They could recruit from the same pool of executives who know the
best techniques of getting people to believe that a little fake shit doesn’t
spoil the crop yields.
The laws of unintended
consequences and collateral damage apply to criminals just like they do anyone
else. I’d like to give some examples of ‘crimes’ that might have the judge
and jury shedding tears—ones of laughter.
A driver went to the
trouble to find a replica of testicles. He displayed them in the back
of his truck. The sheriff’s deputy stopped him and gave him a ticket. The
motorist is back in the news. He’s got a second ticket for the same ‘crime’. One
more time and that is three strikes and he’s out. A life sentence in a South
Carolina prison where a set of replica testicles might not work out all that
well for him.
A drunk driver had his
truck pulled over early on a Thursday morning by the police. He’d been clocked
doing 70 mph around midnight. His companion who was riding shotgun was a ‘small
monkey’. The police seized the truck and monkey and arrested the driver who’d
had a history of DUI arrests. No word on how much the monkey had
A 17-year-old biker made a
point of giving the finger to one of those CCTV cameras that monitor the
traffic. Not once but 26 times. He cleverly covered his face and removed his
license plate. The police laid a trap for him at the end of a tunnel and the
biker confessed to crime of displaying his middle finger at the CCTV
It wouldn’t be a good
German crime story with out further evidence that comes from a strong scientific
background and understanding of procedures, permits and technology. It turns out
the biker had the wrong license for the bike he was caught in carrying out his
crime. No middle finger usage endorsed on the license. And the police technical
expert said the 125cc bike was ‘illegal’ based on his assessment, allowing the
police to confiscate it. The biker was fined, points deducted and banned for 26
months from driving. One month for every time he flipped the bird.
A fifty-year-old policeman
was arrested after he approached a 25-year-old woman in a restaurant. He
crept up on her and began to lick her hair. The cop was attached a forensic unit
and had been on a medical leave. The authorities were certain when the cop would
return to work, or what crime, if any, to charge the hair licking forensic
One difficulty of being an
identical twin is if your criminally inclined brother commits a criminal act,
flees the scene and leaves you to take the heat as the witnesses identify you as
the bad guy. Back in November 2010, Anek Ounwong had a fight with a group of
teenagers and he used a grass cutter in what sounds like a bonsai attack on
them. Anek, as often happens in these circumstances, didn’t stick around and
headed for the hills. Last week he went home to find that his brother had
received a four-year prison term of the grass cutter attack. The brother had
tried to explain to the police that it wasn’t him. The police refused to buy his
“I am a twin and my evil brother did it” story as did the trial and appellate
courts. Now Anek is back in town, he’s gone to the police and confessed he was
What was the reaction of
the police? “It’s out of our hands. We can do nothing.” But the police suggested
a course of action. Anek might want to petition the prosecutor’s office or the
courts and explain to them what had happened.
As cases are known to move
through the Thai criminal justice at a vast speed, it takes about four years
before there is a final outcome—just the right amount of time for the innocent
brother to get out of prison. Then the prosecutor can launch a new criminal case
against the twin who committed the crime. I doubt Anek will be able to
claim credit for the time served by his brother. Though he might try. No doubt
the authorities will adjust criminal statistics on assaults with a glass cutter
which might well half the number of cases for 2010.
What these and many
similar cases show is the role of bad luck, bad companions, bad brother, and
hair licking police in the day-to-day criminal cases that happen right around
I studied law. I taught
law. I acted as a lawyer. Still with that legal background, I find it difficult
to wrap my mind around systems where people are “above the law.” In practical
terms that means if they commit an offense, they are not processed through the
legal justice system. They receive a free pass. This is the real world. Not one
you find in law textbooks except in footnotes.
In Thailand, there are
multiple examples of someone with political and social influence getting away
with murder. There were witnesses. The act was caught on CCTV cameras. But the
evidence is lost along the way. Nothing comes of the case. After a few months,
it disappears from the newspapers, from the public mind, lost from collective
memory. Time erases the crime. In the real world, our memories can only have so
much overload before they no longer function.
The victim’s family in
such cases is lost in the void. There is no public accountability, no
explanation, no reconciliation of the rules of the system. In the real world,
none of that matters a great deal. Power accumulates. Power is the gravity that
shapes, bends the rules to fit the interest of the powerful.
A few days ago in Cambodia
an environmentalist was shot dead as he sought to lead a couple of reporters
into a forest where illegal logging was apparently going on. He was shot dead by
a soldier guarding against troublemakers like Chut Wutty, who led a Natural
Resources Protection Group. He sought truth and justice. In the real world,
people on the side of truth and justice get into conflicts with powerful people.
Push becomes a shove, and a shove moves to the next stage of a gun. “Above the
law” means the death of this kind is unlikely to lead to arrest of the gun. Who
it turns out was a soldier who was said later to have shot himself (twice) in
the chest with his own AK47.
Chut Wutty is an example
of someone who confronted powerful interest. In this part of the world, that
confrontation is more likely than not going to end badly and when the gun smoke
clears, there will be a body of the man seeking truth and justice. In the real
world, there will be an “investigation” and no evidence will be found linking
anyone powerful to the crime. There will be no trial. Only a dead gunman who
China is in the spotlight
for the impunity of Bo Xilai, ex-political heavy weight, who by press accounts
waged a reign of terror against “enemies” in his city of Chongqing, which has a
population of 30 million people. Bo Xilai’s wife is charged with murdering by
poison British national Michael Heywood. She showed up shortly afterwards
dressed in a Chinese Army general’s uniform.
In the real world, the
most powerful people in Asia have political power. This is the
get-out-of-jail-free card for them, their family, friends and associates. But
what Bo Xilai’s downfall—a huge political event in China—illustrates is that a
man may be powerful but there may be more powerful men above him. It appears
that Bo Xilai wired taped the phone of President Hu Jintao who was in Chongqing.
No doubt he only wanted to know what good things the president was saying about
him. Unlike American banks, Bo Xilai wasn’t too big to fail. The Communist Party
pulled the plug and Bo Xilai, a feared, ever powerful force who ruled with an
iron-fist, is now on the sidelines. In the real world, the powerful fall only
when they double cross someone more powerful than they are.
This year the Chinese
government will spend around $110 billion on domestic security—the surveillance
and information technology system don’t come cheap. Regional leaders like Bo
Xilai had access to such systems. That allowed him and other powerful regional
leaders to keep watch on the Chinese counterparts to Chut Wutty. In the real
world, people who seek to remedy injustice need to be watched. And as we can see
in the case of China, some significant cash is put into high systems to scan the
citizens for such troublemakers.
When a forty-year-old
blind Chinese lawyer named Chen Guangcheng escaped from house arrest, he found a
way into the American Embassy in Beijing. His fate is still unresolved. One
thing is clear. The impunity game once it is thrust into the international
spotlight, the authorities scramble for cover, citing the usual reason: it is a
matter of internal interest and outsiders shouldn’t poke their nose in domestic
affairs. The powerful don’t like other powerful people looking down at them.
That causes loss of face.
Chen’s “crime” was making
noises about forced abortions and the like and the powerful wanted to turn down
the volume by putting him and his family under house arrest—after having already
served over four years in jail for “damaging property and organising a mob to
disturb traffic.” His other crimes included: organizing a petition to eliminate
taxes on disable farmers, signatures on a petition to close down a polluting
paper factory, and a successful law suit to force Beijing’s subway operator to
allow the blind to use the subway for free.
Clearly Chen was a world
class troublemaker for the powerful. They did what powerful people who are above
the law do, they take the person out of circulation. No more official charges
for him? No problem, just put him and his family under house arrest. Have a
squad of armed men circle the houseand beat upthe man, his wife and kid because
in the real world, you can.
Chen complained of
mistreatment at the hands of authorities, and that included abuse of his wife
and six-year-old daughter.
What has Chen asked?
Basically he’s asked the government officials not to be above the law. The
Toronto Star quotes Chen, “I also ask that the
Chinese government safeguard the dignity of law and the interests of the people,
as well as guarantee the safety of my family members.”
The breaking news is Chen
checked out of the American Embassy in Beijing and into a hospital—out of his
own volition or so the American officials say. The American Embassy is gaining
the reputation of a half-way house from embattled police chiefs to blind
activist lawyers. They get shelter, food, some counseling before being sent back
to the street. The Americans apparently received the assurance from Chinese
authorities that Chen would be treated like “an ordinary citizen.” That
shouldn’t be a hard promise to keep because that was exactly how he was treated.
Ordinary citizens are below the law; those in power above the law, and they get
to find a middle ground in the foyer of the American Embassy. You just know that
ain’t going to work the way they think it will.
Here’s the executive
summary. Chut Wutty is dead in Cambodia. Blind lawyer Chen Guangcheng who was
hiding out in the American Embassy in Beijing, has decamped to a hospital where
he will be treated as an ordinary citizen. And strict criminal libel lawyers in
Thailand prevent naming the powerful killers who walk the streets of major
cities in Thailand. That’s another thing worth mentioning. Speech in the
above-the-law jurisdiction is inevitably censored to make certain ordinary
citizens don’t start asking awkward questions about truth and
Because in the real world,
those above the law, remain above the law, and those who seek truth and justice
will wind up in an early grave, house arrest, or the Chinese transitional guest
room in the American Embassy with a map of China and suggestions of where they
might next want to live.
If you live in a country
where the rule of law applies to the powerful, then you should light a little
candle tonight and, despite all of the misfortunes of class, race and
inequality, count yourself lucky that as an ordinary citizen you can raise your
voice and ask for justice. You can go public with your grievances, proposals for
change, no matter that others disagree with you, and you can go home, turn on
the TV and not worry that the government won’t send men around to beat up your
wife and kid. Or put a bullet through your head.
Because if you lived in
the real world that most people occupy, you’d understand just how dangerous
truth and justice can be and the costs fall like a ton of bricks on the person
making such a noise.
The idea of prison is a convicted criminal is removed from society
and locked in a facility where his freedom of movement and association is
limited. A prisoner occupies a cell. Unless he’s in solitary, the prisoner also
has access to other facilities such as dinning hall, library, exercise room, and
TV room. Punishment means removal from society. Loss of freedom. Loss of
liberty. And loss of opportunities to conduct a business or trade.
Then came the cell phone.
Given recent events in a Thai prison, it might be argued that ‘cell’ phone is a
good description of the mobile phones with cheap SIM cards that can put a drug
dealer in contact with his organization. Add the iPad, iPhone, and hard drive
for backups, being in prison doesn’t really mean the same thing as in the old
analog world where a man had to be physically present to oil the machinery on
the illegal treadmill that sent drugs in one direction and received money from
If you are going to run a
home office out of your prison cell, the first thing you need to do is find a
partner or two in authority. These are prison staff, officials, guards whose job
is to make certain the prisoner is kept out of circulation for the term of his
sentence. When most people think of prisons, if they think of them at all, the
image is a tattooed murderer, rapist, robber or pedophile. The violent,
twisted, dangerous dregs of society belong behind bars. It satisfies the human
need to avenge the harm to victims, and also protects the members of society
from suffering a similar fate at the hands of such predators.
Most prisons are filled
with people from the illegal drug trade. They are more like businessmen than the
general population. Thugs, gangster, ruthless and law-breaking businessmen to be
sure. Given the overall ethical quality of workers in the finance and banking
industry, these prisoners share more with the members of the Board of Directors
of Goldman Sachs than with the child killer waiting for his day of reckoning on
These are the kind of
prisoners who have organizational skills, employees, and who have expertise in
paying off the right people. Well, some expertise in paying off the right people
or they wouldn’t be in prison. They can develop the pay off skill with some
years in prison. They have an entire prison staff to practice on. The guards and
staff are paid peanuts. The drug lords inside are making large profits and can
offer incentives that would turn overnight an ordinary life of guarding
prisoners and getting by in near poverty into a quantum leap into a better life
of fancy houses, cars, and holidays.
You make something
millions of people want illegal and you make a small group of people willing to
break that law to reap the profits, which means you have the perfect storm
that produces a new wave of convicts who in turn rather than being punished in
prison, move their operation inside and joint venture with the officials running
the place. Think of it as renting office space with bars on the windows and your
own private security operation to protect you.
Cell phones for Cells.
That could have been the lead in the recent Bangkok
report about Nakhon Si Thammarat police chief’s statement that prisoners in his
jail were working drug deals with prisoners at Bang Khwang Central Prison. How
did the police chief figure this out? He conducted a raid last Sunday. The raid
yielded “284 mobile phones, 1,700 methamphetamine pills, or ya ba, and
50g of crystal meth, or ya ice, in prison cells.” In a second raid on
Monday, officials seized more than 10 phones and more than 100 inmates tested
positive for drugs.
The betting money is that
officials inside the prison tipped their paymasters in advance of the raid.
Meaning that what was seized was only what couldn’t be hidden or taken out of
the prison in advance of the raid. One general went on record to admit his
frustration that some prisoners had advance warning of the raid. It’s hard to be
surprised by their loyalty.
The prison officials take
a hard look at their monthly government paycheck. Then they have long look at
the revenue steam they get from convicted drug dealers inside the prison. The
choice is drawing water from a leaky old tap or dipping over the edge of Niagara
Falls. If water were money, where would you fill your bucket? All those extra
zeros are bound to tip the scale of loyalty. Follow the money, as they say, and
you can pretty much guess where a man’s loyalty lies.
It seems the men inside
the joint had been running a large drug network with the digital trail running
through the back jungle lanes in Laos and Myanmar. Meanwhile, the policy of
dealing with illegal drugs hasn’t changed. The current government has sent the
cops to arrest and if need be shoot drug ‘dealers’ (along with occasional
innocent bystanders as collateral damage) as a public show of how they are
cracking down on the illegal drug racket.
But the recent prison
raid, it is arguable that the authorities have been looking in the wrong place.
This puts the spotlight on an uncomfortable thought: that the people who are
driving their pickups with a stash of drugs hidden inside are as much the
problem as the convicted drug dealers who continue to run the business from
The Justice Ministry
announced a crackdown on drug trade in prisons. If you think that is going to
work, please raise your hand. Like I thought, I see no hands raised. Doubling
the pay of prison staff and officials isn’t going to help. The illegal money is
far too much. Jam the cell phones. Someone will sell an anti-jammer device.
Conduct more frequent raids. They will be scheduled to make certain the main
business isn’t inconvenienced too much. Lock up inmates in bare cells with the
lights on 24 hours a day. Human rights organizations descend along with camera
crews and you face charges of human rights violations.
Here’s an idea. Why not
reconsider the notion of criminalization of drugs? We assess how we characterize
victimless crimes, addicts, and develop policies that reflect a difference
between treatment and incarceration. That might just put the current crop of
drug dealers in prison out of business, and return prison staff and officials to
their duties where they’d relearn the art of living on a civil servant
Otherwise, the government
can pretend, as governments do in most places, that they are cracking down on
illegal drugs and protecting society. When in reality the official policy
effectively has moved the headquarter operation of the drug business off the
streets and into a secure facility where the cops can’t ambush them and shoot
them dead and claim self-defense.
The new globalized set of
high tech savvy drug dealers who now live in prisons would be the first to
resist decriminalization. If they had a lobbyist in this capitol or another and
made large campaign contributions, they would be the first to support the
current system of extra-judicial killings (a good way to teach the non-jailed
drug dealers to stay out of their territory), occasional raids and crackdowns.
It is a great cover for their operations. It allows politicians to stay popular
by methods they insist is winning the war on drugs.
When we know that the war
has already been won. Just visit a prison and you’ll find a band of the winners
of the current policies. This elite class of prisoners is building themselves a
nice little nest egg for the day they walk out of the prison gate. No doubt once
out, they will miss the freedom they had on the inside. The outside world is far
more dangerous and expensive.
Mental test: What is the
first weapon that comes into your head when I ask you to name a murder
Chances are you’d choose a
gun, bomb, knife, sword, and a blunt instrument.
My guess is that you
wouldn’t have chosen poison.
For young readers you
might think of the band named Poison. They have shiny chrome skulls on
From 331 BC The Romans used
lace food and drink. The fad of using fatal substances over a personal, business
or political conflict ran through all classes of Romans. By medieval
times, the Arabs developed arsenic, odorless and clear substance, to kill a
rival or enemy. There was no CSI in those days so proving that someone was
poisoned as opposed to having died of natural causes was more difficult. Asia
joined the ranks of cultures where poison became a tool to eliminate
It is easy for anyone to
buy poison from a local shop. Either pesticide or disinfectant , in sufficient
doses, will kill a horse. And either product will snuff out the life of a man,
woman or child.
captured the essence of our fear in Henry VI, Part II, Act III, Scene 2. “Hide
not thy poison with such sugar’d words.” In a word, poison works by deception.
When a person pretends to offer friendship and hospitality, our guard is down.
If someone pulls a gun or knife, we have no difficulty understanding the threat.
Poison in our tea. That is hitting us in a fear region that lives way below the
Pick your poison: arsenic,
antimony, mercury, lead and thallium. All have been used to murder.
Women historically had a
number of motives to commit murder. Their civil, property, inheritance, and
marital rights were restricted in most places until the last hundred years. What
better way to end a marriage, to ensure a father’s inheritance, to cover up an
indiscretion than using a little poudre de succession or “inheritance
powder”—the name the French gave to arsenic.
Poison and women are back
in the news in Asia. And the case comes with all of the intrigue, deception,
back door financial dealings, and corruption that would have left William
Shakespeare trying to catch his breath.
A young British
businessman Neil Heywood died suddenly last November in China. The official
cause was alcohol poisoning and heart attack. Only Neil Heywood, the father of
two, didn’t drink. Forty-one year olds don’t normally die of heart attacks. One
would have thought the British authorities might have made some inquiries. But
at the time, the British authorities accepted the
Chinese verdict. Big
mistake. The ground has shifted. The allegation made in China is that Gu Kailai,
the lawyer and wife of former Chongqing Communist party secretary, poisoned
That’s a big deal. The
theory being developed, now that Bo Xilai has been sidelined from his powerful
position, is that the couple had used Heywood to transfer money abroad. The
allegations are hundreds of millions of dollars. That’s not the official salary
for a Communist party secretary but it is a good indication of the economic
opportunities that go with that position if the office holder is so
inclined. The case is building that Heywood and Gu Kailai had a falling
out over the commission that was to be paid by Heywood.
Soap box operas, tabloid
newspapers, talk shows all embrace such sordid cases and they can also join the
ranks of the New York Times and the Guardian in allowing readers to follow the
updates on what is bound to prove to be one of the most interesting
international murder cases in 2012. A murder case with potentially profound
political implications for the Chinese Communist Party in the way it selects,
monitors and disciplines members who cross the line where greed and murder
override ideological purity. The CPC Central Committee has ordered a thorough
investigation of the case. That doesn’t happen often. In fact, old China hands
would have to be consulted the last time the Central Committee investigated the
possibility of a murder carried out by the wife of a high-ranking Party Official
Now for the noir part. The
case became so toxic in Chongqing concerning the murder that the police chief
tried to defect to the US consulate. I’d like to have been a fly at the gate to
the consulate as the police chief rolled up and explained to the 19-year-old
Marine that he was the chief of police and wanted to defect to
“A powerful woman will
have me killed,” I imagined he said. But I am a novelist and I am certain he
said something more along the lines, “I want to see the consulate.”
Wang Lijun, the police
chief, looks like an emotional mess, glancing over his shoulder, chain-smoking,
and his uniform rumpled from being on the run for a few days and nights. “Yeah,
right,” the marine must have thought. “I let this guy inside and they will be
checking my urine for drugs until I’m 100 years old.”
The American consulate
true to their creed of offering asylum to the oppressed, and those about to be
murdered by their own officials, did what you would expect. They turned Wang
Lijun over to the authorities in Beijing. Maybe the rendition planes scheduled
for Iraq were all booked up. We’ll never know.
Now that Heywood’s death
has hit the tabloids, the British government did what you’d pretty much expect
them to do: ask the Chinese to investigate the circumstances of Heywood’s death.
Questions are being raised in UK parliament and no doubt in what ever room the
Central Committee sips its tea. What does the foreign secretary William Hague
have to say according to the Guardian? “We now wish to see the conclusion
of a full investigation that observes due process, is free from political
interference, exposes the truth behind this tragic case and ensures that justice
Free from political
interference? Justice? Truth? Excuse me, exactly what alternative reality does
Hague live in? The man should have his urine checked for drugs. There must be
some substance that explains how tragedy has been converted into farce without
anyone laughing. Or noticing that farce is more likely our existential
Politics as well as
jealous and greed, share a long history with poison as a partner in crime.
This case is no exception. What makes Heywood’s case one that may go down in the
annals as a significant crime is the classic setting of court intrigue,
betrayal, greed, and power. Like the Game of Thrones, a power struggle is afoot.
In that whirlwind Gu Kailai’s guilt is what appears on the official
But what happens behind
stage is likely far more interesting as the downfall of Bo comes at a time when
there is a Chinese secretive generational shift, and new, younger faces (men
with less hair dye) will take their places at the seats of power. No doubt
taking a new oath to swear they will endeavor to instruct their wives not to
resort to poudre de succession to eliminate foreigners. And also the
wives must promise never to scare local police chiefs into defecting to America.
That leaves such a bad black eye for the rest of the world to
A recent article in the
Financial Times (a must read for all crime writers who are interested
in following the flow of money between the usual suspects) carried an article
written by Jeannie Erdal under the title: What’s the
big idea?Her basic idea is that the novel,
especially the 19th century Russian novel, is one of the best way of
serving up a buffet of philosophical idea about what is meant to lead a good
What struck me about
Erdal’s article was the absence of any mention of crime fiction. Though
Crime and Punishment might be torn away from the dead fingers of the
traditionalists and placed in the crime fiction category. My point isn’t about
how best to classify this Russian novel, but to point out that perhaps Erdal has
been looking in the wrong place to find where novelists have taken their
questions about justice, fairness and the nature of society. The Guardian also
has an article written by Adkitya Chakrabortty titled Why are
English and American novels today so Gutless? The thesis not unlike Erdal’s is
that contemporary writers willing to tackle social and political issues are far
I disagree with the
conclusions reached by Erdal and Chakrabortty. They have been looking in the
wrong place for fiction addressing the larger political and philosophical
matters of our time. Bestseller lists and most literary novels might not yield
such commentary. Because novels falling into one of these two categories fail to
deliver social and political commentary means critics need to look harder and
further afield. Is it possible they’ve overlooked a class of novels that falls
under the radar?
If you read crime fiction,
you will likely have come across a number of philosopher crime authors whose
sleuths or police officers shuttle along pathways laid down by Hume, Socrates,
Plato, Mills, and Locke. There is no shortage of contemporary crime authors who
write hardboiled or noir fiction whose novels raise the existential questions
about being, whose narratives seek to resolve questions about liberty, fairness
and equality. In fact, there is a long tradition of such philosophical
examination of society by Raymond Chandler and Dashiell Hammett who were
philosopher writers as were Georges Simenon and Léo Malet.
The popularity of noir
fiction is a testament to the appetite of readers for existential narratives
that portray the powerlessness of criminals and victims over their own
destinies, and novels that raise issues about free will and authority. The
Scandinavian authors have received considerable attention for highlighting
larger philosophical questions about nature of culture and society. Peter Hoeg’s
Miss Smilla’s Feeling for Snow and Stieg Larsson’s The
Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, were both international bestseller.
Stieg Larsson in particular captured a huge audience as he took readers on a
search for answers to crimes committed inside right wing class of capitalists
whose wealth made them all but immune for their crimes.
The idea of excesses among
the elites in Sweden started a fire that has spread to many other cultures and
countries where crime fiction authors have explored the large question of who do
the authorities and law enforcement officials hold the elites responsible for
their crimes? Peter Hoeg and Stieg Larsson are two recent examples of
political philosophy curled up like a hidden dimension inside the traditional
form of crime fiction.
That dimension of ideas
has been building for sometime in crime fiction. Reviewers and critics haven’t
been looking in this genre for veins of philosophical goal in these mines, and
that may be because crime fiction isn’t to be taken seriously as the traditional
gold mines: literary fiction. They’ve been looking in the wrong place in other
For at least the last
decade, readers have embraced hardboiled and noir novels because they connect
with a longing to have such deeper philosophical issues arise from the scene of
a crime. And that is where crime fiction starts. What happens next can take the
reader into the complexity of norms and ideas, and before anyone realizes, the
choices the characters make along the way reveal to us the kind of society,
justice system, and economic system that is under our nose.
There are several crime
fiction authors whose books have raised philosophical questions. They are
interested in more than solving a crime. They are examining the psyche of the
criminal, the victim and the society, with its structure of power and authority,
detailing the fault lines where crime occurs. The problem with this list is it
is too short. There are a number of authors who should be included. But this is
a short essay and not a book. The list below includes some of the big idea
authors currently writing hardboiled/noir crime fiction.
Cotterill has two crime fiction series that lock onto larger issues of
political and economic oppression in Southeast Asia. His Dr. Siri Paiboun, an
old chief medical officer, a communist, is set during the 1970s in Laos. The
contradictions of communism, friendship, local culture, and mysticism are
blended into insightful narratives that bring to life the larger question of how
best to live in society. His second series staring Jimm Juree, a Thai
ex-journalist, who has moved to the southern part of Thailand with her family
has gone deep into the subject of Thai fishing boats using slave Burmese
Hallinan’sThe Queen of Patpong is a gripping portrayal of
young girls and women from upcountry villages and whose lives have been shaped
by society to enter Thailand’s nighttime entertainment industry. His
investigator, an American travel writer named Poke Rafferty is a reliable guide
to the world that creates the perfectly exploited woman. In this compelling
examination of not only how we should live but also what the consequences of
living a life where money obtained at any cost is the driving value
Vulture Peak is part of a continuing series beginning with
Bangkok 8 to feature luk krueng Thai police detective Sonchai
Jitpleecheep. As a former Buddhist monk and someone who works as a policeman,
Sonchai is constantly confronting contradiction between the tenets of faith and
the workings of the justice system. From corruption to profiteering, Burdett’s
crime fiction gets down to business on the value and meaning of life where
powerful interest can do pretty much what they wish. Burdett’s fiction tunnels
deep into the psyche where dreams, religion, mysticism and desire mingle,
touching the core of how meaning defines life in Thailand and how the powerful
use their authority inside a society to keep themselves in control.
Matt Beynon Rees’s
has a series set in Gaza. The first book in the series Collaborator
of Bethlehemintroducing a middle-aged school
teacher named Omar Yussef who leads the reader into violent, broken world inside
the Dehaisha Palestinian refugee camp is a gripping commentary on the politics
of the Middle East. If you want to understand the passion of true believers, the
way injustice and power corrupt communities, you won’t find a better series. As
an example of a writer who is a philosopher at heart, Matt Rees’s crime fiction
is Exhibit A in any discussion of how crime fiction can deliver content to the
discussion of what makes for a fair, and justice society and what struggling
people must endure to achieve it.
Thompson’s Finland based Inspector Vaara series is a philosopher’s
feast. Snow Angels is in the best tradition of fiction that uses
cultural issues such as racism to go under the surface of a society and work
through the consequences of tolerating levels of injustice based on race. You
come away from a book like Snow Angels with a new perspective on how
our prejudices create a wormhole of hatred in the human heart, and that is bad
enough, but when that hatred and fear becomes collective mentality, hanging like
an invisible veil over many of the political and cultural institution. Thompson
fiction is a preparatory course for examining how and why our attitudes and
opinions of others can’t ever be disconnected from the scene of a crime where
the victim is designated as an ‘other’ by society. And we know where that road
I edited a collection of
short stories titled Bangkok
Noir. Half of the proceeds from the publisher and dozen
authors have gone to support three charities that support the education of
stateless children in Thailand. It’s a small step. The money is small. The point
is a dozen crime fiction authors wrote some very fine stories about the
hardscrabble world a lot of people occupy, and agreed that giving back was part
of what any author should do. We have in the pipeline two additional
collections: Phnom Penh Noir and The Orwell Brigade, involving
more established authors from around the world, and more money will be channeled
to social causes in Southeast Asia. What I’d say to those who say authors aren’t
socially or politically engaged, or ignore philosophy in their work, please look
The old line between
philosophy and fiction may still be there for sometime. Abstract ideas have one
kind of audience, while narratives found in novels often have a different turn
of mind, and different demands. While philosophy appeals to our intellect,
novels touch our emotions. And it is inside the boiler room of emotions that the
fires burn the hottest and the passions cooked inside are from the recipe of
political and cultural ingredients handed down by our ancestors. There is
more than one way to make a loaf of bread, and more than one way to share the
loaf that is made. If you want to see how bread is made, horded, handed out,
fought over and killed for, buy one of the books from the authors I mentioned
above. You’ll never look at a loaf of cultural bread the same way after
you’ve read them.
Last week I was at a
gathering, which included an American from Kentucky who was passing through
Bangkok. He had stories about George Clooney and other famous people from his
State. The conversation turned to what young people in the United States aspired
to in life. The answer from the American guest was simple: “They want to be
In a celebrity driven
culture that should come as no surprise. Fame is associated with the good
life—wealth, status, prestige, and glory. The world is your oysters. You are
mobbed in public by admiring strangers.
In the old days, fame was
limited to movie stars or superstars in the sports world, but fame has
metastasized into many new areas including authors in the world of
There have been famous
contemporary writers since Charles Dickens. Authors like Georges Simenon and his
reputed bedtime with ten thousand women. Martin Amis and his reputed dental
surgery. Salman Rushdie whose Midnight’s Children saw him go into hiding from
the mullahs for a decade. James Patterson multimillion-dollar making fiction
factory. J.K. Rowling, a welfare mother turning words into a billion dollars.
These authors are recent examples of the rewards and punishment of the literary
famous. They have set the goal post for the wannabe literary famous.
There is a new class of
writers looking to join their elite status. Self-published ebook authors. With
the changes in the publishing, globalization, the internet and ebooks, the
possibility of fame appears within the grasp of people who self-publish a book.
Some of these new ebook authors have used the new digital channel to become
wealthy. Have they also become famous? Not unless you confuse being well off
with being famous. Most of the ebook self-published authors remain obscure and
as poor as when they started their book. But dreams are hard to kill despite the
reality fame rarely settles on the shoulders of most of us. And when it does,
choosing to live with Simeon’s prostrate or Amis’ teeth, we’d be hard pressed to
make a decision knowing it was going to be very public.
With millions chasing the
holy grail of celebrity status, it is interesting when an author decides to take
his or her career in just the opposite direction: to become invisible, a cipher,
a shadow without substance except the body of work. There are the famous
recluses like J.D. Salinger who wrote The Catcher in the Rye, whose
fame rested on that book and his decision to shut himself away from the
Timothy Mo, another
reclusive author, appears as if hatched fresh from a mysterious cobwebbed
warehouse lined with coffins either in Hong Kong or Manila once a decade or so
to launch a book before retreating back into the shadows. Pure, Mo’s
latest book set in Thailand is already making noises in London. For me, the
recluse author is a game plan to maintain fame in another more perverse way.
There is no halfway house in the invisible author racket. An author either
disappears or he doesn’t. That is how ‘pure’ works. Living underground like a
Cicada and emerging with a loud song that drowns out the other insects every
decade isn’t disappearing. That is clever advertising.
It is said that the
Gone with the Wind, which won the author Margret Mitchell the Pulitzer
Price in 1936, was the only novel ever written by Mitchell as the rest of her
life was spent answering fan mail. That is one price to pay for fame—work to
answer every inquiry from readers, reviewers, and journalists until they lower
your cold, blue body into the grave.
What I find far more
interesting is someone who was famous or near famous, erasing themselves from
the public; no images, no email, no Facebook or Twitter account, and becoming
anonymous. Fame isn’t for everyone. Having total strangers write you, stop you
on the street, phone you, and write you with questions and advice is a great way
to see the entire day of writing being put off until tomorrow.
I recently tried to look
up an old friend in Vancouver who was a well-known screenwriter for TV, wrote
some movies, a successful play, and had been activity in the affairs of the
writing community, serving on a number of boards and committees. I’d known
Michael for years but had lost contact. All I could find on Google was that he
had died in Vancouver mid-year 2010. There was one small obit. I clicked on
Google images. Zero. How could that be possible?
Michael wasn’t an obscure
wannabe writer but a sought after, successful professional writer with many
credits to his name. He was someone well known in Canada. He would have attended
parties, conferences, been around on movie sets—all the places where people take
pictures. I saw him at such events. In all of my moves, I am certain my
photographs of him have long ago vanished. I last saw him and his wife in
Vancouver in about 1985.
This is the digital age, I
told myself. He’s bound to have enough photographs to fill a moving van. Wrong.
I couldn’t find a single photograph of him on the internet. Knowing Michael, I
can only think he worked to achieve this goal. He must have planned to
‘disappear’ from the planet, leaving no trace of his image in the public domain.
I have asked a number of people and still haven’t found anyone who can explain
to me how Michael could have erased his images from every website on the
internet. He lived well into the digital age. But in Michael’s case, there
isn’t even an image on IMDB though all of his TV and movie credits are
disappearance into a visual blank screen is an accomplishment. I smile when I
think of him vanishing like a magician. Fame wasn’t anything that ever concerned
him. He didn’t drink from that well of public recognition; he never got drunk on
that strong brew of being a public figure. That drink which nourishes the
narcissistic personality disorder never passed his lips. I admired Michael years
ago, and I admire his way of leaving the stage empty except for his
His way of going isn’t
mainstream. The current obsession with fame is further evidence of something
more disturbing. The desire for fame is another symptom to be added to long list
of symptoms that define the narcissistic
My personal literary hero
is H.F. Saint, the author of Memoirs of
an Invisible Man. The author had worked on Wall
Street. The novel was his first and only. He must have written it at night after
selling crappy bonds to people who wanted to become rich and famous. Everyone
has the dream of going home and writing the novel that makes them rich. And
Saint not only finished
his novel; he hit big time, like a walk on to the New York Yankees who hits a
homerun with the bases loaded his first time at the plate. The crowd roars.
Memoirs of an Invisible Man was made into a successful movie and H.F.
Saint received a large amount of money—the Fuck You Amount—from the movie deal
that allowed him to become invisible. And that’s what happened. Saint resigned
from his Wall Street job, left New York and moved to France, and as far as
anyone knows, he never wrote another book.
He had hit that freak home
run, ran the bases and kept on running out of the stadium and disappeared
through the parking lot never to be seen again. Like Michael, my friend from
Vancouver, you’ll find very little about H.F. Saint, who became the invisible
man. No photographs. No interviews or profiles. No life as a famous
recluse railing against the publishing industry. Just a long silence.
The author of Memoirs
of an Invisible Man chose to cast aside fame for the luxury of an anonymous
life, one without strangers stopping him on the street, writing him, or inviting
him to this party or a talking engagement. H.F. Saint escaped all of that
because he chose to do so. On Wikipedia, in the place reserved for the
author’s photograph, is a painting of a suit and tie with no head. A perfect
testament to the book and author.
My fear is that one-day a
reality film crew flush with cash and a broadcast contract will ambush Saint on
some country lane in France and will have footage of the author, dragging him
back into the public domain. I hope that these filmmakers fail. H.F. Saint who
is the D.B.
Cooper of the literary world should continue to remain an enigma. We
should preserve his mystery for the same reason we preserve historical
buildings. The past without a mystery or two isn’t a foreign country worth
We need our invisible men
to stay invisible as the whole world is already rendering everyone far too
visible. They are our small reserve of mystery against the day when everyone’s
information is accessible to anyone else. That’s not exactly the same as
becoming famous. But it blurs the line between what we now think of public and
While the American from
Kentucky who talked about the American youths embracing of fame as their goal, I
would offer an alternative role model. The one H.F. Saint showed was possible.
The one my friend Michael opted for as well. The best life is lived beneath the
radar. They must have known in their bones that the fame seekers carried the
very symptoms that are anti-life, that destroy the creative process, the
psychological damage that no amount of been celebrated can repair. In being
invisible they found something far more important than fame, they found freedom.
That is hitting the ball out of the park.
In the Vincent Calvino
series, the novels are divided between crimes that are domestic in nature—though
an expat might be involved—and those with and cross-border connection. The
distinction between international crime and domestic crime often blurs once cash
enters the picture. Mountains of cash from illegal activity make for strange
bedfellows inside the world of crime.
In a globalized economy,
crime has been at the vanguard of moving money, people, and products around the
world. Criminals have an incentive. They don’t want to get caught and sent to
prison. So they put money, thought and time into avoiding risks. In the
shadowy world of illegality world, the basic business skills are largely the
same. But there is an important difference.
First, the criminal is
relying on gaps, flaws or holes in the system, and similar gaps and flaws in the
moral and ethical values of those who run the system. They exploit both. Second,
criminals use threats, guns and violence if things go pear shape. Rather than
recourse to the police or courts to redress breaches, criminals have their own
methods of settling disputes. It’s called intimidation and violence. Legal
businessmen delegate the intimidation and violence to entities of the State.
They have less need to get blood on their hands.
Law enforcement has
traditionally been a local affair in most countries because most crimes have
been local in nature. The criminal and victim were from the same city, province,
county and/or country. A case can be made that organized crime kicked started
globalization. The British Opium Wars in the early 19th century is a
good example of a legitimate business becoming a crime syndicate (looting and
pillaging by merchants/warriors/politicians has a longer history).
As part of its empire and
trade-expansion imperial policies, Britain lent military assistance to The East
India Trading Company (which became drug dealers but they weren’t called that)
who used guns and canon to force open the domestic market in China to sell
massive quantities of opium to the Chinese. The British were able (because of
the opium business) to cut their trade deficit. Fiscal and monetary policy had
different moral dimensions in the 19th century.
Organized drug gangs
continue to operate but they no longer have the overt support of a government,
which supplies them military muscle, tax benefits and place their officers on
the annual Honors List. There will be readers who will cite examples of
contemporary thugs who have received a gong before eventually finding their way
to a prison. All of that is true but beside the point. I am speaking about a
change in the general arc of history. There has been a shift—led by
technological innovations—that continues to weaken the link between organized
illegal activities and government officers.
Not all the forces inside
governments are working to change the analog cash system. You would expect
eliminating corruptions to be a priority but that lofty goal also means the
breaking of many rice bowls that have been inside the system for generations.
Giving up easy money is harder than kicking a drug habit. Reformers are put on
committees to write reports and show the way. But nothing much happens at the
grassroots level, at the end of the money pipeline where the rural school
teacher, hospital worker, prison guard, cop and migrant worker are waiting for
pay day. That is money raked off inside the government system by officials
skimming money from the low-level beneficiaries.
The other unofficial
source of revenue for government officials is generated from illegal activities
such as drug trafficking, logging, prostitution, gambling, and smuggling. Let’s
have a look at opium. A big, profitable market that despite law enforcement
efforts shows no sign of slowing down in Southeast Asia.
The current opium
production in Southeast Asia is on schedule to record a bumper crop year. That
means a couple of things: (1) moving the product across borders; and (2)
laundering mountains of cash.
When the opium finds its
way into the international market, how do governments in the region enforce the
law? The poppies are grown in one place. The processing of the poppies into
opium paste takes place in another place. The storage and transportation are
likely in other locations. And the flow of money crosses multiple borders, going
through numerous bank accounts. Some of that money is paid as bribes to
politicians, cops, military personnel, customs inspectors, and others in the
chain of security, protection and enforcement. Organized crime is highly
profitable because it has the ability to patch together a makeshift set of
mutually beneficial relationships that thrives on secrecy, non-traceability, and
the sanctity of borders.
various levels of law enforcement and security officials complicates the risk
factor for organized crime. By allowing co-operation across the borders, the
sharing of technology and information, the cost to organized crime bosses
increases dramatically. It is like insurance premiums. If that huge, devastating
flood only occurs once every hundred years, the cost of insurance is relatively
low. But if the hundred-year flood level happens every six months, the cost of
insurance skyrockets to the point no one can afford to buy insurance.
Successful co-operation is a real threat to transnational crime.
Everyone sees the part of
the elephant standing in their district but don’t see the overall dimensions of
the beast. According to the Bangkok
Post, 43 Thai
cops traveled to Hong Kong to meet their police counterparts. The idea was to
establish co-operation between the two police forces. They can exchange
information about finances and training, for example. Hong Kong and Thai
authorities have promised to enter a memorandum of understanding on the nature
and scope of their co-operation. What crimes and in what circumstances
co-operation will occur remains to be hammered out. Whether anything tangible
will arise from this arrangement is impossible to know at this stage. It is hard
enough to get people within in the same department to co-operate. Extending
co-operation across borders with different traditions, languages, and customs is
what is called a ‘challenge’.
In this part of the world
the problem is often not lack of co-operation but that there is too much
co-operation between law enforcement, civil servants and politicians and the
organized big league crime ventures. A glimpse of that organized crime world of
powerful insiders using thuggish methods to drive out competition was revealed
recently in China. In this ‘business’ model the local government ran the
organized crime business through their friends and associates and those who
tried to compete found themselves beaten and tortured and driven out of the
The Chinese government
released information about Bo Xilai, the Chonguing party chief who recently lost
his job in a power struggle. The New
Once hailed as a
pioneering effort to wipe out corruption, critics now say it depicts a security
apparatus run amok: framing victims, extracting confessions through torture,
extorting business empires and visiting retribution on the political rivals of
Mr. Bo and his friends while protecting those with better
How best to approach the
problem of corruption and organized crime in league with government officials?
Follow the money. The pain criminals feel the most is when their traditional
money routes are closed down. Big, organized crime is a headache because it is
largely a ‘cash’ business. How does the criminal with bags of bank notes work
the cash through the financial system? Brokers arise whenever there is a market.
Cash is a market and brokers create an informal banking system to launder the
legislation has slowed down but not stopped the Amazon River flow of cash. This
is particularly true in less developed countries where there are few banks and
almost no one has a bank account. Cash in hand systems are vulnerable to
corruption. Every time money stops at someone’s desk on the journey from the
person who sent it and the person who will eventually receive it, someone is
taking a piece of the action. This rent seeking happens in the underground
economy as well as in banks in legal economy and we call these fees. In the
underground world, we call this corruption if the person exacting a fee is a
In Afghanistan, payrolls
for the ordinary cop and low-level officers were first distributed by
higher-level officers, who took their cut before passing the cash down the line.
A Vodafone program, first created for payments in microfinance operations in
Kenya, was adapted to pay the Afghan police directly through their cell phones.
That computer program caused mixed feelings. The high command hated the
innovation. But low-level police thought they’d receive a raise. It was the
first time they’d received a payroll without someone above skimming off the top.
They loved the new system. In a country where very few people have bank accounts
and there are a handful of ATM machines, banking through a cell phone is a
mini-revolution. It is also an effective way to reduce corruption or, to use the
lovely term, ‘money leakage’.
One frustrated commander
demanded that his officers turn over their phones and PINs and attempted to
collect their salaries from an M-Paisa agent.
India is examining the new
technology to increase the reach of electronic transfers as a way to reduce
government corruption. Argentina used electronic voucher cards as part of a
successful campaign to beat corruption.
Money as a physical object
is so much a part of our experience that it is difficult to believe there were
long stretches of history when our ancestors didn’t use coins or paper money. We
are going to a financial system that is digital. The knock-on effect means that
electronic money transfers will continue to reduce the role of physical money
passing through many sticky fingers.
Organized crime works at
the municipal, county, provincial and national levels in many countries because
corruption is difficult to root out. The technology is available to largely
eliminate corruption. But those who benefit the most from the current cash and
carry and skim system are not likely to step forward as willing first adopters.
One would expect those with vested interest to subvert attempts to bypass the
original channels in which cash flows.
between police forces across borders makes for a good study trip to another
country, the hotel buffets, the sightseeing, and making of new friends. But
let’s be honest. The problem isn’t lack of co-operation, as the officials often
co-operate a bit too much. The problem is finding a direct way to make payments
that avoids pushing bags of cash down the old traditional ramps in a world where
the most powerful porters drive Benzes and live in mansions.
You never see a ‘company’
handcuffed and paraded before the press. But in this part of the world, pictures
of flesh and blood criminals often appear in the newspaper or on TV.
Mostly, they are low-level criminals who were caught holding the illegal goods.
Holding the bag so to speak.
They are presented at
press conference with rows of uniformed officers looking on as the accused sits
in front of desk loaded with parcels containing contraband. Most of the time the
parcels contain drugs.
Next time you look at a
drug suspect sitting handcuffed as kilos of drugs are displayed, remember this
deliveryman was paid to deliver a product.
Now and again a missing
piece of the story pops up in the press.
The accused at the table
is the tip of iceberg but what sunk the Titanic laid underneath and it was huge.
Organized crime is the forces that build this force of criminal nature. It
creates, operates, manages and controls a chain of supply; a chain of
distribution, and it has operational chiefs, people of influence and status, as
well as significant financial and legal talent. In many ways, it is like many
other businesses. All of this chain is to source, process, and distribute
without undue risk to the principals who earn windfall products from a product
that is illegal. Meth possession will likely land the end user in
The end user is at the
same level as the delivery guy, the poor mule, who sits alone. Those are the two
faces you see over and over. What about the others? Isn’t it time for at least a
show of looking inside the organization part of organized crime?
The recent case of 30 Thai
hospital and clinics supposedly implicated in buying and selling pills with the
active ingredient called pseudoephedrine, an essential chemical compounded
needed to make meth—one extremely nasty, ugly drug—is a rare look at a hidden
part of the chain. Let’s get out of the way a couple of things that you should
know about meth and crystal meth before we get to the hospitals and clinics.
These drugs put people in the hospital or the grave. Here are some of the short
term and long-term effects: panic and psychosis, convulsions, seizures,
permanent damage to blood vessels of the heart and brain, liver, kidney and lung
damage. That’s enough. You don’t have to examine every last body to know when
you are in the presence of a massacre either.
Last year the Guardian reported: “The number of
methamphetamine users in Thailand will reach 1.1 million this year,
the head of the country’s anti-drug police told the Guardian – equivalent to one
in every 60 citizens.”
That’s a big, profitable
According to the Bangkok
Post, police found a senior pharmacist at Udon Thani Hospital had a role in
diverting some 65,000 cold and allergy pills out of the hospital. Another
pharmacist at a hospital in Uttaradit is implicated in using his hospital to
launder 975,000 pseudoephedrine-based pills. The upcountry hospitals are under
investigation. The reported number of pills from various hospitals and clinics
no matter how many times you read them simply don’t add up in the story. They
rarely do in such cases as it seems math and journalistic skills rarely come
together in one person in Thailand. The upshot is that a huge quantity of the
pills with the essential ingredient to make meth was being sold out of the
backdoor of hospitals and clinics.
There was no report of any
arrest being made of anyone from a hospital or clinic.
The story about how a vast
hospital and clinic chain pumped millions of pills into the meth chain of
production wasn’t discussed. As a classic case of how the free market model of
capitalism really runs when left without adult supervision, is itself
illuminating. As this was a story about hospitals and clinics, you gather they’d
run a photograph of such a building. That didn’t happen.
Would you like to guess
what ran picture the newspaper ran with this story instead… give up? Three
delivery people at a table surrounded by a platoon of cops and right in front of
them were 2.5 million speed pills and 50 kilos of crystal meth.
We get the message. The
story is about the role of hospitals and clinics in the meth production in
Thailand. But none of those people wanted their picture in the newspaper. The
pool of photography subjects is pretty obvious from the arrested mules. These
are the human livestock of the drug business. The same class of people who were
hunted down and some 2,500 killed some years ago during the last ‘war on drugs’
Not that we really need a
lesson in the obvious. Yet we have come to not question the lesson any
more. We assume those in the picture are those in the story. Even though we’d
likely never find a factory worker’s picture in a story about he CEO of Ford or
Shell Oil. In the illegal drug business, it is the employees, the working class,
those who drive the truck who become the face of the problem, who get all the
It is unlikely to happen
during the lifetime of anyone now alive that your descendants will open an
electric screen and look at faces of high-level officials from the private and
public sector sitting at a table handcuffed for their role in the drug trade.
Things don’t work like that at the present time in most places. Getting a piece
of the chain in the illegal drug business is a guaranteed way to getting your
hands of some of the massive profits.
Life is good when you’re
rich. Unfortunate for a few mules lost along the way. But as Darwin taught
us we inhabit a world of survival of the fittest. And a degree in pharmacology
It’s not only you who’s
looking to high-tech to solve all of your problems. Repressive and
not-to-date-so-repressive governments are taking notice of new weapon
If you are a protester or
demonstrator your future will likely include being made mute or stuttering
uncontrollably and throwing up. These weapons are currently in development and
in some cases are operationally ready. Welcome to the Brave New World of
high-tech equipped security forces. Controlling people is something governments
have traditionally sought to achieve.
There is a long history of
political demonstrations and most of it is violent, repressive and bloody. Power
instinctively seeks to stamp out challengers. Thumbs screws, the rack,
beheadings, chopping off hands, arms, legs, and burning at the stake often drew
large crowds who found that sort of thing highly entertaining.
Except for a few places,
we don’t live in that world any more. Our world is one of modern technology that
has rapidly added new weapons to the arsenal of governments. CCTV surveillance
cameras, monitoring phone, computers and emails are already in place. The newest
technology makes the life of demonstrators move in the range between difficult
We’ve entered an age of
mass demonstrations with news reports from many countries around the world. The
powerful would like a neat way to cause people in such crowds and their speakers
to be either unable to speak or to vomit and feel dizzy. Speech may be free but
those who insist on exercising their right can be made to pay a high
Police forces in America
and many other countries have become militarized. Fighting crimes is more
warlike than ever before. The new weapons on the ground and those patrolling the
skies such as predators, give the cop/soldier hybrids better information,
firepower, and protection against return fire. It is better to think of the cops
and soldiers as one unified security force which share weapons, intelligence and
tactics to marginalize common enemies. That includes demonstrators.
A number of the new high
tech toys fall in the category of ‘shock and awe’ firepower, stealth capability,
and protective gear for the cop/soldier. That means the bank robber, car thief,
and mugger will find it increasingly more dangerous to carry out their
self-employment. They won’t be missed.
What governments wish us
to believe is that dangerous, violent criminals when they aren’t robbing banks,
stealing cars or handbags are attending political rallies and demonstrations.
The cops/soldiers (the security forces) are finding the general public is less
inclined to support their decision to order their security forces to shoot
demonstrators in the streets. Even repressive governments have come to
understand that slaughtering demonstrators is bad public relations. And it
invites charges of crimes against humanity and genocide and a public trial in
The Chinese label
demonstrators in Tibet as ‘outcasts, criminals and mentally ill’ people. This
description of demonstrators, with a few local variations, pops up on the lips
of politicians in many countries once activists and protesters accumulate in
crowds, and demonstrators challenge the central authority. How best to stop
demonstrators has been the work of some creative scientific minds. The first
goal is to disperse a crowd. Second, weapons are needed to discourage,
demoralize or disable people who demonstrate against the government. These are
government goals in many places.
In the bad old days the
security forces used rubber bullets, tear gas and water canons. These low-tech
responses to demonstrations only partially worked. In a large political
demonstration of 50,000 people a high tech response is needed. What’s the latest
way for the political class to mess with the rest of us?
One answer is the LRAD
(Long Range Acoustic Device). This little baby will blast 95 plus decibels of
sound—heavy metal music or a cat in heat—at the crowd. That’s loud, and later
models will likely burst eardrums. Though at this stage of development, I am not
certain a crowd in Thailand would notice 95 decibels of sound as anything other
than normal. But that is another matter.
Scientists are working to
increase the range of the LRAD and combine it with other features. Like scent.
These good scientists have done research on what smells induce uncontrolled
vomiting, inability to maintain balance, and reduced sensory capability. The
political demonstration starts to look like an alliance of binge eaters,
acidheads, and disabled lap dancers with everyone bumping into each other on
their rubbery legs. Some of the Bangkok klong water will at last find a
market, as it could be bottled and sold to the manufacturers of the new LRAD for
ammo. The slogan will be along the lines: ‘KlongBomb: Smells worse than shit’,
and ‘Knocks out a skunk’. Politicians will claim that Bangkok is a LRAD ammo
The problem for the
security forces are the leaders who hold their ground and the smell of shit only
seems to fire them up. For these people, the scientists have come up with a
speech jammer. The Japanese came up with this wonderful idea. Who wouldn’t want
their own jammer for use against the loud, rude talkers who always manage to get
a table next to yours at a restaurant, the seat next to you on the subway,
cinema or lecture?
But do you want your
government using them on you when you beg to disagree?
Here’s how the speech
jammer works. It delays a speaker’s words for a couple hundred milliseconds and
blast the words back at the speaker. The technical term is ‘auditory feedback.’
What this means is the device messes with out brain’s cognitive processes. In
non-technical terms it makes you stutter. Apparently these jammers were
originally developed to help people who stutter to overcome this disability. Of
course the security forces of the world often see a golden lining in such
developments and wondered if it cures stuttering, can we tweak it to make people
stutter. The answer is, “yes, general, you can turn this baby on the speaker on
the stage and turn him or her into an incoherent, jabbering fool.” And when you
label the leader of the demonstration an incoherent, jabbering fool, you can
replay the words from his or her latest speech as Exhibit A.
Shut up or I’ll jam you
into a stuttering retard. That is an improvement on stop or I’ll shoot you. This
is only the beta model. Ten, twenty years down the road, the implant versions
will be ready and demonstration leaders will have sentences handed down that
include insertion of such devices.
We have eight more years
left in this decade. By the time 2020 rolls around, the security forces will
have effectively curtailed public demonstrations as they will have their squares
and streets ringed with high-tech weapons that make such protest impossible. We
are just at the start of the civilian repression that lies ahead. It’s not just
a pre-Enlightenment dark age that threats all of us, it is that cone of silence
when we are left to our own thoughts and those too are on the high-tech drawing
board for the post-2020 world.
Imagine if your brother,
son, husband went out to cover a war - to tell the truth of what was
happening to innocent bystanders who cannot affect any change to the situation
they are in - and while covering that war they disappeared. Never to be heard
of again. Nothing for 41 years.
This is what happened in
Cambodia in the early 70's. Five years of war, four years of Pol Pot, ten
years of Vietnamese occupation and then a landscape littered in land mines and
UXO's, meant that the missing media have disappeared from our thoughts - but not
from the thoughts of their families and loved ones.
Tim Page has returned
dozens of times to Indochina trying to learn their fate. He has done this
on his own dime and his own time. Now he needs help to get back. this
is not a search for remains but for the last living memories of the people that
saw them, helped them and that possibly know their fate. Please watch the
trailer and if you feel moved to help, please make a pledge.
And please pass it
….. a search for the last
living memories, their recollections of our lost brothers and the imprint they
left behind …….
There is something
Alice in Wonderland like about asking whether a corporation is a
person. It is unclear whether the United States Supreme Court might be taking a
page out the Mad Hatter’s book of logic when it comes to corporate
“Mad Hatter: “Why is a
raven like a writing-desk?”
“Have you guessed the
riddle yet?” the Hatter said, turning to Alice again.
“No, I give it up,” Alice
replied: “What’s the answer?”
“I haven’t the slightest
idea,” said the Hatter.
Corporations are legal
constructs. Abstractions that arise because a law allows people to create them,
run them, profit from them, and defend them. No one will ever walk into a bar
and find Microsoft or Apple sipping a glass of beer. People who work to advance
the interest of the company are the ones at the bar drinking.
Corporations also have a
long historical reputation for being a popular vehicle for colonial expansion.
Read that as meaning raising armies, launching wars of conquest, killing and
enslaving indigenous populations, looting treasure, plundering natural
resources, and corrupting the local legal system.
The United States Supreme
Court not long ago (Citizens United) decided that corporations were to
be treated as a ‘person’ for purposes of political expression. It must have
seemed like a good idea at the time. Now that decision has come back like a bad
penny. Can the corporation be a ‘person’ for political expression and not a
‘person’ when it comes to paying compensation when it is implicated in
third-world countries that engage in human rights violations such as murder,
extracting natural resources without caring too much about the
Anyone with a passing
knowledge of the East India
to forget the Dutch West
India Company) will know that if corporations
were people that had vast monopolies, controlled vast estates, wielded political
power, and you never had to look too far to find a lot of blood dripping from
the hands of the flesh-and-blood people who ran them. Did I mention that they
also did a lively business running the slave trade? That’s unlikely the image
they wish to be viewed taking into account their current corporate TV ads or
Corporations from the
17th through the 19th century were the vanguard of
organized crimes, raising armies, selling weapons, drugs, beating, torturing,
imprisoning or murdering the locals who raised a voice in protest. If
you’ve read along this far, and you’re saying, yes, that is all true. But didn’t
all of those terrible things happened a very long time ago? There are no more
colonies. Independent states run their own affairs. The United Nations has
mandates about human rights and the environment. And that means, corporations
are no longer evil polluters, looters, pillagers, and murderers, right? When a
dog gets the taste of raw eggs it’s hard to keep him out of the hen house even
though the house looks different from the old days.
The Royal Dutch Petroleum
Company has found itself a defendant in an American case that has reached the
United States Supreme Court. So you thought all of that nasty business of
colonial plunder and murder was behind us? Let’s take a brief look at the
Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum case. To do that, put your mind back to
Joseph Conrad’s The Heart
to the space and time that reappears as officials of the Royal Dutch Shell
worked along side officials of the Nigerian government to arrest, torture, and
murder environmental activists, members of the Ogoni, in the Niger Delta,
protesting the adverse health and environment fall out that resulted from
unregulated drilling and extraction of oil from that region.
No one is apparently
arguing whether the corporation through its officers and employees was complicit
in the human rights violations that occurred in the 1990s. The argument instead
is whether the victims who otherwise have no connection with the United States
can pursue legal remedies against Royal Dutch Petroleum in the American judicial
system. To do so the victims need to convince the high court that the Royal
Dutch Petroleum Company is a ‘person’ under the 1789 Alien Tort
Statute. If they are a ‘person’ then the victims of the faraway crime can
sue them in an American federal court. In an earlier case, the Court established
that an individual, who was a foreigner but who did business or had assets in
the United States could be successfully sued for wrongful acts such as torture
and murder carried out against another foreigner abroad.
It comes as no surprise
who has filed briefs in support of the Royal Dutch Shell claim that the case
should be thrown out. Britain, the Netherlands, and Germany—the countries with a
rich colonial past, which means they know a thing or two about using
corporations to keep a teach a lesson to the restless natives while enslaving
the rest to extract natural resources from their lands. Funds limited to paying
off he elites and profits for the shareholders. That’s pretty much sums up how
the old corporate system operated and, despite the TV commercials about their
responsibility to the environment and community, continues to operate in many
The United States filed a
brief in support of the victims right to bring the lawsuit. Who are the judges
going to support? The Europeans with their corporations harvesting profits that
come from valuable resources extracted from the mines, wells, pits and forest of
the third-world. The American government may have decided that exposing foreign
corporations to the full radiation of the American justice might cause such
corporations to make a correction in their activities that have in the past led
to the most ghastly abuses. And after paying out on a few lawsuits would take
away some of the competitive edge gained through such exploitation by making
compensation for third-world murder based on the American scale.
Assessing American styled
civil damages against a foreign corporation operating in foreign lands against
foreigners is a revoluntionary and clever way of reckoning the true cost of
running the international resource business. That’s a novel scary enough idea to
get three ex-colonial European governments to come down to rescue the Royal
Dutch Shell. Come to think of it, I also wonder why the China and Russian hadn’t
filed a brief support of Royal Dutch Shell. The potential countries involved are
a cozy club of mutual self-interested resource extractors. Perhaps no one hasn’t
anyone explained to them what is potentially at stake in this case should Royal
Dutch Shell be conferred with ‘personhood’. Knighthoods for the CEOs, but no
personhood for the company, thank you very much. They know where to draw the
line in the sand.
The Supreme Court Justices
at oral argument on the case have revealed their thinking about allowing these
foreigners to use the American court system to chase down the wrongdoers and
bring them to account.
John Bellinger in
Lawfarereported on this exchange during
the oral arguments:
said: “But, counsel, for me, the case turns in large part on this:
page 17 of the red brief. It says, “International law does not recognize
corporate responsibility for the alleged offenses here. And the — one of
the — the amicus brief for Chevron [written by Jack Goldsmith, a former Kennedy
clerk] says, “No other nation in the world permits its court to exercise
universal civil jurisdiction over alleged extraterritorial human rights abuses
to which the nation has no connection. And in reading through your briefs,
I was trying to find the best authority you have to refute that proposition, or
are you going to say it is irrelevant?”
Justices Roberts and Alito
showed their hand, too:
Justice Alito: “Well
there’s no particular connection between the events here and the United
States. So, I think the question is whether there’s any other country in
the world where these plaintiffs could have brought these claims against the
Roberts: “If — if there is no other country where this suit could have
been brought, regardless of what American domestic law provides, isn’t it a
legitimate concern that allowing the suit itself contravenes international
Human rights and
environment rights are detailed in standards by the United Nations. That’s
wonderful. But corporations understand that the United Nations doesn’t operate a
judicial system that can hold them to account. They know the place of the crime
is on their side and no effective legal remedy is available to the victims. The
question before the Supreme Court is whether to open American courts as a venue
to reign in corporate terror.
A majority of the Supreme
Court justices decided in an earlier case Citizens
United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) that corporations
were persons with the same right to freedom of expression as an individual.
Meaning corporations could fund political campaign ads that advanced their
political agenda just as an individual. Having put themselves in the business of
bringing individual rights to corporations, whether it will take the next step
is to apply civil remedies to a foreign corporation implicated in murder and
torture. Or someone might whisper in the court’s collective ear that the case
isn’t really about the murder and abuse of victims’ human rights, it’s about the
unfair competition that violence assisted in allowing certain corporations a
large cost cutting advantage not shared by their more ethical competitors. And
we can teach those foreigners a thing or two about punitive damages to claw back
some of that advantage.
On chasing that rabbit
down the hole, the court enters Alice in Wonderland, where nothing is
quite as it seems. In that world the successors of the East India Company and
the Dutch West India Company are filing their briefs to carry on their business
in the tradition of the 17th century. Big time crime syndicates
called corporations, and the big time criminals who work for them artfully dodge
and dart like a virtual
physics between separate states: being an individual when it suits their
political agenda, and an abstract legal entity when it engages in plunder,
looting and murder.
The Supreme Court can’t
put Royal Dutch Shell Corporation into the Large Hadron
settle the question once and for all. But the physics of justice isn’t
scientific. The justices aren’t searching for the judicial equivalent of the
Higgs Boson. Court decisions are hardnosed, practical, messy, contradictory, and
never, ever above the politics and economic interest that make the world a
duplicate copy of what it has always been. In the future if the Royal Dutch
Shell Corporation and other ‘foreign’ companies like them may find themselves
entangled in the spider web of defending damage claims in an American civil
We will be left wondering
if the advancing the economic interest of the Americans was the real reason
behind the decision. Making a corporation a person is a good cover story and it
also comes with the added bonus of making the court look consistent with its
earlier ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election
“If I had a world of my
own, everything would be nonsense. Nothing would be what it is, because
everything would be what it isn’t. And contrary wise, what is, it wouldn’t be.
And what it wouldn’t be, it would. You see?”