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Blog Archive September 2017

Ethnocracy

 

For a definition of ethnocracy Wikipedia provides: “An ethnocracy is a type of political structure in which the state apparatus is appropriated by a dominant ethnic group (or groups) to further its interests, power and resources. Ethnocratic regimes typically display a combination of ‘thin’ democratic facade covering a more profound ethnic structure, in which ethnicity (or race, or religion) – and not citizenship – is the key to securing power and resources. An ethnocratic society facilitates the ethnicization of the state by the dominant group, through the expansion of control, often through conflict with minorities and neighboring states.”

This definition of ethnocracy also covers many countries in Southeast Asia. It also extends to countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Trump’s election was a wakeup call. We found that what we thought of as democracy was a public relations sham. Unless, of course, you are part of the dominant ethnic group, then you are celebrating a return to the way things should be. You’ve recovered your dignity and respect and those outsiders have been pushed back.

Donald Trump’s election as president in 2016 signified a major advancement of the concept of ethnocracy. The current genocide of the Rohingya in Burma is another example of ethnocrats ‘cleansing’ their state of minority ethnic groups.

Demos is the Greek word for the people. Democracy is a system where the consent of the ‘people’ is the basis of legitimacy for those who govern. The word ‘people’ is in scare quotes because there lies the problem—how do you define ‘the people’? The people’s (however you define that group) consent is conferred through an election. With voter intimidation, suppression, rigging and gerrymandering, it is possible for a dominant ethnic group to discourage ethnic minorities from voting. The effect is a political system that has the outward appearance of a ‘demos’ consenting to the governing authorities but in fact this is a sham.

The left and right, republicans and democrats, nativist and globalist are united in their belief that the other side is supporting a sham to suppress them. There are daily news reports showing that the real split is between two social constructs of reality: global/international and the native/ethnic. The two perspectives, which determine how to allocate resources, extend security and protection, and set the power and role of authority are in conflict. There is no middle ground. You see people as the species or you see the people as a mythological ethnic group of which you are a member.

An article in the Bangkok Post reported a growing anti-tourism feeling in many countries. Foreigners are no longer welcome. It’s not just tourism. Religious dogma has been used as support for blood letting by nativist groups. In Burma, the genocide conducted by the civilian and military government has been led with Buddhist monks in the forefront of the call to eliminate the Rohingya. Trump made campaign promises to build a long, expensive (an ultimately useless, symbolic) wall between the Southern United States and Mexico. Bans of immigration and travel have followed. Racial hatred against minority groups has been on the rise in many countries. Police brutality is disproportionately applied against ethnic minorities. Prisons are filled with ethnic minorities. But somehow we can bring ourselves to see the pattern. One goal of an ethnocracy is to destroy the ability of the dominant group to see such patterns. Willful blindness is a psychological requirement for an ethnocracy to work. Women, particularly ethnic minorities, do not fair well in terms of rights, education, security and protection in ethnocracies. Margret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale won Emmy Awards including Outstanding Drama Series for a dystopia where women had lost their rights in a rigid, ethno culture.

Censorship has a new life in the ethnocracy. Knowledge, expertise, and intelligence are devalued and nativist propaganda bans studies, books, discussion and dissemination of information that counters the ethnocratic version of reality. The anti-intellectual fury against science and knowledge workers is understandable. Unless that knowledge and the scientific method for examining reality is shutdown or marginalized or dismissed, the results of the research might be used by the global/international group to undermine the myths upon with an ethnocracy is constructed. We’ve seen on YouTube ethnophiles who have had a DNA test showing their mix ancestry and the cognitive dissonance that caused. There have been, for example, a number of articles showing that historically there was no ethnicity in the sense we use that term today. The great fear of ethnocrats is their founding idea of race and ethnicity is true and real rather than a construct of our minds. Evidence that it has no biological or evolutionary support will never change the mind of an ethnocrat.

Science is distrusted by ethnocrats for a couple of reasons. First, science cares nothing about ethnicity as a membership requirement. Instead scientific method and process depends on the quality of a mind, it’s openness, it’s curiosity, and it’s ability to co-operate with others from different cultures. That makes science a global force and a natural enemy of the ethnocrats who are anti-science in order to secure their belief system. Second, science has the evidence and the means of communication to demolish the concept of ethnicity. It is a man-made construct and the racial hatred it encourages becomes the building blocks of an ethnocracy and its culture. If you examine the budgets in an ethnocracy they are surprisingly consistent: science is defunded, de-emphasized, and scientists encouraged to work as engineers to build a strong ethnocracy.

The nativists are the core of the ethnocratic dominant group. They will refuse to accept the science of climate change and for a very good reason—the nativists have no solution climate change. It can’t be problem if there is no solution. There is only a global solution to deal with climate change and that is to go beyond ethnocratic cultures and mindsets. The ethnocrats don’t see an impasse. They don’t find a problem. You find the same approach with the concept of ‘freedom of expression’ or ‘human rights’. The Burmese rankle at the idea they are committing genocide or engaging in ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya. This is, for the nativist, not a ‘global’ issue, and there is no ‘global’ morality, only local, cultural ways for the dominant ethnic group to deal with their minority populations. The government officials don’t want NGOs, news correspondents, or other observers on the scene to report what their security forces have done along with local dominant group members. That is consistent for nativists; they believe they are superior and in the right but when challenged become aggressive about their rights as a sovereign nation/state and demand non-interference in their domestic affairs.

Historically, the ethnocrats have support for their position in the seventeenth century the Treaty of Westphalia. “State sovereignty is the principle of international law that each nation-state has sovereignty over its territory and domestic affairs, to the exclusion of all external powers, on the principle of non-interference in another country’s domestic affairs.”

We are no longer living in the world of 1648 Europe. Nation, like the Greek word, People, has created a tension as technology has encroached on state sovereignty, and the major existential problems facing mankind as no longer ones local governments can address on their own. The ethnocrats want 1648 treaty to be the model now and in the future. That is understandable if your goal is to advance the interest of a dominant ethnic group inside the boundaries of a state. Look around places like the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and America and ask yourself how well the 17th century shoe fits the 21st century foot size.

Posted: 9/18/2017 10:34:28 PM 

 

Our unfortunate complicity in the mass murder of the Rohingya

 

The Rohingya genocide at the hands of the Burmese is bibical in its full fury and brutality. Unfortunately what is happening in Burma is not unique. Our species evolved as members living in groups. Our self-identification, culture and group membership maintains itself by the presence of outsiders. The non-group member is a threat, the ‘bad’ the ‘evil’ the ‘criminal’ always someone who is less than human, a demon to be put to the sword and house burnt down.

The implications arising from the Rohingya ethnic cleansing are disturbing and disheartening for many reasons. One implication is that we have another lesson of how difficult it is for us to think in terms of species survivor–a condition for broad-based co-operation required for climate change measures and human rights. Both are based on us being part of a universal group. One species.

Peace prizes are awarded to those few who call for universal human rights. Until the application of those principles is required at home. Then Aung San Sui Kyi retreated to her native ethnic, national group and that is a lesson not lost on others elsewhere in the world. Trump leads the nationalist retreat in America. Around the world you find leader after leader working the tribal drums against outsiders. You might say these leaders have failed us. The other side, is more troubling, these leaders reflect who we are and in shocking ways that are painful to accept.

The Rohingya are the canary in the coal mine shaft. As more agricultural land become infertile, temperature rise, extreme weather, and ocean acidification leads to mass migrations, we will bear witness to tragedies like this on a on a global scale and this will be a frequent feature of our lives. The cleansing of outsiders is increasing a big political selling point to power in many countries.

In The Marriage Tree, the story revolved around the plight of Rohingya in Thailand. That Calvino novel was published in 2014. Three years later, the Rohingya are receiving international attention as the Burmese genocidal rulers sense no push back from America. We have entered a time when leaders like Donald Trump asked for sympathy with the side doing the murder, to see the matter through eyes. In which case, I say take a close look at the photographs coming out of Burma. Ask yourself why you click on a funny video of a dog streaming on your timeline and why scroll passed a story about the Rohingya. We don’t want to look. We know but we don’t want to know.

Our group-think, group-act psychology no longer works for 7.5 billion people and lays bear our emotional wiring that is guiding us on a path toward extinction. If you could buy futures in ‘hatred’ and ‘fear’ as commodities you stand to make a killing.

Posted: 9/15/2017 5:29:03 AM 

 

Re-Enchantment

Most people have experienced enchantment. It’s a moment in time when you find a sense of wonder and beauty in something much larger than yourself, but includes you, and this enlargement of self gives us a subjective sense of bliss and joy. Given that payoff, you would think enchantment is sought after.

But when you look at a bar graph charting the use of the word ‘enchantment’ you discover a steady, long decline over the past 200 years. If it isn’t in the vocabulary, then enchantment is just another of those terms we no longer much think about. If you’d invested in enchantment shares in the stock market of modern life, you would have been a loser. The word still knocks around but has gained a bad reputation by its association with fairy tales. Not to worry; it has been repackaged for contemporary times. We live in a modern era where ‘enchantment’ like most other things have been commodified, packaged, and sold as mass produced experiences. What are the sources of the subjective feeling of being enchanted? Why, in modern times, do we feel disenchanted with life? The answers to these questions are not obvious or easy. What is more obvious is we are in an age of despair, an age of deepening disenchantment. How would be go about for the re-enchantment our world?


M.C. Escher

During the long period of hunter gatherers, nature with the wild flowers, rivers and streams, mountains, oceans and beaches, birds and animals would have provided a rich, diverse opportunity to feel the magic, bliss, joy, delight and charm that folds into our sense of enchantment. The point is, enchantment is about our subjective sense of how we feel about the world that surrounds us. Evolution would have taken care of eliminating the early bands of homo sapiens whose subjective sense was so whacky as to find bliss in riding a saber-tooth tiger.

Once we entered the agricultural period 10,000 years ago gradually our relationship with nature changed; we took to religion as the way to register enchantment. In the rituals, ceremonies, art, priesthood, angels and saints, we constructed enchantment from the tissue of beliefs that gave us new skin in the bliss and joy emotional space we had inherited from the hunter gatherers’ way of life. With religion, we learned to ride with a new set of communal mythical, celestial beings, holy, divine and enchanting.

The Enlightenment set a fire under the religion’s monopoly over truth-making for both the objective and subjective experiences of the world. Science gradually used observation and experiments and mathematics to provide objective explanations and descriptions that left religious doctrines stranded in misunderstanding, ignorance and superstition. Spinoza saw that religion had become a political enterprise “pandering to popular fears and illusions.” Prophets with ulterior motives have made history of many religions. In recent advances, science has given a biological and chemical explanation for our subjective experience. Consciousness, the so-called hard question, is being pursued and may soon be captured in a commercial or university lab.

To be satisfied with religious literal explanations about the world carried the stigma of ignorance. The educated populations found themselves excluded from the enchantment experience that had been in place for thousands of years. But in most places, even after 500 years, the Enlightenment has failed to substitute for enchantment that has the same appeal as nature had for our hunter gatherer ancestors and as religions had for the post-agricultural communities.

In the modern era of capitalism, enchantment has become a business. I recently listened to an Atlantic magazine podcast interview with Kurt Anderson talking about his new book FantasyLand. Two of the interviews gushed over their joy of visiting Disneyland with their children. There was no awareness that the ‘fake’ and ‘alternative’ reality of Disneyland is a modern enchantment enterprise that comes with tickets, long lines, popcorn and soda.

I may have been too harsh about the Atlantic interviewers lavishing praise of the Disneyland experience. Wikipedia delivers the facts: “Today, Walt Disney World is the most visited vacation resort in the world, with an average annual attendance of over 52 million. The resort is the flagship destination of Disney’s worldwide corporate enterprise, and has become a popular staple in American culture.”

Why are Disneyland and Disney World so popular and not just for Americans? There are Disneyland franchises in France, Japan and Hong Kong. The answer to popularity among diverse cultures is no doubt complex with lots of plausible ways—from mass marketing to alternative entertainment—to connect the dots. One of those answers is Disneyland is what capitalism has invented as a substitute for our desire to experience enchantment and share that joy with members of our family. Can that be so bad? It’s not a moral issue as much as it is an insight into how our modern world has been stripped of the magic of nature and the authority of religion, and in that void flies Tinker Bell over the Cinderella Castle and acts as our guide to the Magic Kingdom. Disney World with a payroll of 74,000 cast members is the largest single-site employer in the United States.


Tokyo Disneyland

What is left out of the Disneyland enchantment option is the financial cost. While hunter gatherers had the great open spaces to experience enchantment, and the agriculturalist and industrialist age populations had churches available for the emotional uplift of joy, A family of four going to Disney World starts with a minimum budget of $2000 and runs up to $10,000. You reach for your wallet if you want to experience this artificial world of joy. The costs would exclude a lot of people who flock to the megachurches where ‘ministers’ preach sermons that act as a kind of Disneyland substitute for the poor where they are fleeced of their cash.

The problem is Disneyland, Disney World, megachurches are at times in competition and other times complicit with alternative radio, TV, and social media. These modern rivals for our unconscious mind and our subjective state of mind play out in the low-grade psychological wars one encounters on various timelines. Our modern enterprises in the enchantment business—and it is a commercial venture—either haven’t made a dent in the disenchantment of modern times or collaborate with these outlets in a joint effort to manufacture a safe subjective blissful reality. Religious fundamentalists, reality show personalities, and assorted specialized self-help gurus have filled a void. They have found a large unfulfilled bliss market among the discontented and disenchanted. Our subjective feelings are a marketplace where fortunes are made. The modern disenchanted are searching for reasons for why their lives lack bliss and joy. If you are disenchanted, that makes you vulnerable to emotions such as hate and fear. We have failed to re-enchant our world after science and philosophy cast a long shadow of doubt on the enchanters of the past. Knowledge provided the sword and we’ve been using it to chop off the head of enchanters. As most of these were charlatans, the misguided, or the outright grifters, to the scientific mind this was a good thing—to liberate humankind from ignorance is a noble goal.

Our collective enchantment deficiency is another explanation for the rise of someone like Donald Trump and other opportunists. Trump is the face of what a disenchanted person sounds and thinks like. Trump has channeled that absence of transcendent meaning for millions. He understood the world was no longer an enchanting one and could emotionally work up a crowd to support a way to claw back their loss of meaning, respect and purpose. It’s an old political gaming of the psychological desire to have feelings that put us in touch with our subjective need for irresistible charm and beauty that holds us in its spell. W.H. Auden once wrote, “A false enchantment can all too easily last a lifetime.” Thus we must be cautious about spell casters and their magic over large numbers of people. We are easily tricked by the sleight of hand.

What lies ahead is the difficult mission to bring about a re-enchantment. We can’t go back to the hunter gatherers’ way of life, where nature dominated, or to religious explanations that no longer attract many. The experiments with Disneyland and Disney World have been highly profitable but ultimately required us to pay a high price for bogus and fake amusements only to discover the commercial enterprise was failure to re-enchant the world. The 1960s and New Age sought drugs as a way back to enchantment. Drugs became another avenue to furnish the chemicals required to kick start the altered state of mind needed for the enchantment experience. Huxley may have forecast our future back to enchantment—we drink our soma to supply the missing subjective experience we crave about being in the world.


The Guild Wars 2: Heart of Thorns

If we can’t go back and what we have isn’t working, where does that leave us with our instinctive desire for enchantment and its return to our world? There has always been an element of fantasy in enchantments. Hunter gatherers would have read spirits, demons and omens into mountains, streams and forests. Any 11-year-old with a computer, smartphone or iPad can play games and enter virtual reality spaces where magic spells are plentiful. It may be easy to become lost in that world as our objective world is a messy, chaotic, confusing place filled with uncertainty. The allure of bliss and joy transports one beyond the walls of rational, objective reality. We’ve been unable to merge these realities any more than we’ve been able to merge quantum and classical worlds. We have an intuition that they are linked but we can’t discover it.


Max Ernst

Everyone has their personal portal to enchantment. Might is Bach’s French Suite, the writings of Jorge Borges or John Berger, or the art of Max Ernst or M.C. Escher.  Or just sitting quietly on our porch to watch the sunset at Eel Swamp.

Enchantment is unlocking the imagination and unearthing a sliver of joy, charm, and allure, uploading that feeling into my mind as the mental armor to protect me in the setbacks and disappointment that I surely will suffer in my brush with the unpredictability and uncertainty of my day. Meanwhile, there is no need to go to Paris because an exact replicate of the Eiffel Tower sits in Disney World in Orlando. Only the fake one is much smaller. In the minds of those who see the fake Eiffel Tower there is no difference in their experience as my experience in seeing a reproduction of M.C. Escher or Max Ernst paintings or drawings.

That should give us a hint that our subjective sense is not a reliable reporter of the objective world. But it never was. Enchantment has always been the willingness to suspend disbelief and enter the fantasy world. The re-enchantment project is open to anyone. The ticket to buy is not at Disneyland, it is the retreat into the realm of imagination for the purpose to experience the bliss and joy that has long been absent in the post-enlightenment world. Ultimately it is this search for enchantment that will separate us from artificial intelligence who can do their work without connecting to a larger subjective sense of bliss and joy. But who can say what the future holds? Perhaps it is with the intermediary of machines will allows to re-enchant ourselves, to open up new pathways of imagination, beauty and grace that light our way back to lives saturated with enchantments. Who knows?

Posted: 9/2/2017 1:26:56 AM 

 

 

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